Munich is a German city with metropolitan population of about 2,800,000 with annual growth rate of 0.99%. It has total area of 5, 504 square kilometers and population density of 509 persons /km2.
The city, best described as low-rise in its urban contents, has diverse land transportation modes ranging from bicycles, cars, city buses, trams to trains. Its housing system has good characteristics which other cities can learn from, among which are;
1. Development in the City of Munich is not locked down in state’s land administration and management bureaucracy rather the city administration is responsible for land matters.
2. Land is managed in the overall interest of the city and not in individuals’ interest, building collective city prosperity. Priority is accorded those who want to use land for development of social and cooperative housing.
3. The management and administration of the city rest with the City of Munich Government and not the State of Bavaria Government
4. The state adopted hybrid housing delivery model, cooperatives and social housing in responding to the housing needs of the low-income households in the city. The two models are being managed under the same operational framework.
5. The finance market for housing development is accessible and attractive. At less than 2% interest rate, the market is a huge encouragement to the developers.
6. There is a standing government funding support, of up to 40%, for developers who want to invest in the social and cooperative housing sector.
7. Beneficiaries of government funding will hold the social housing units for not less than 40 years before selling.
8. There is standing grant for developers who participate in developing properties under the City’s portfolio into social housing.
9. There is vibrant culture and history of successful housing cooperative societies in the city
10. Houses are built by large scale developers rather than individual low-income earners which often overwhelmed the planning system.
11. The quality of houses is exceptional irrespective of the income status of the beneficiaries.
12. There is differential rental system operational in the market with Renters in the social housing sector enjoying lower rent compared to private rental market
13. Different housing delivery models adopted by the city have resulted in strong inclusionary and integrated neighborhoods where high and low-income earners live together. This has eliminated low-income and high-income neighborhoods dichotomy and inequality as can be observed in many cities of developing countries
14. The city is recording high outputs of housing annually which is about 4,000 units due to liberal and non-restrictive housing delivery models adopted by the city.
15. The regulations that surcharges house that remain vacant for more than three months is a market balance and stabilization strategy that is worth exploring by other cities in emerging economies.
16. Urban regeneration transcends physical renewal of building and environment, but economic and social prosperity of the city through various supports for small and medium enterprises.
17. The city continues to innovate through smart city concept which focuses on non-motorized transportation, community integration and inclusiveness.
The city has comparable strength in the preservation of historical buildings and compact airport facility. The expansion of rail infrastructure as one of the responses to the city’s transportation congestion is commendable.
Platform for the City’s Assessment
The Arctic Infrastructure (AI) and Heinrich Boll Stiftung Nigeria (hbs) led a team of Nigerian development stakeholders to the City of Munich, Germany on a working visit to expand knowledge on affordable, social and cooperative housing approaches in April, 2017. The team met the officials of City of Munich, leadership of social and cooperative housing organizations and other influential stakeholders in the city development, in addition to viewing different construction projects and completed houses.
The team members were Mrs. Monika Umunna – Heinrich Boll Stiftung Nigeria (hbs); Lookman Oshodi – Arctic Infrastructure (AI); Arch (Mrs.) Adeyemi Oginni – Department of Architecture, University of Lagos; Mr. Debo Adejana – Realty Point Limited; Mr. Raymond Gold – Nigerian Informal Settlements Federation; Mrs. Victoria Ohaeri – Spaces for Change; and Ms. Abimbola Junaid – Arise Women.
Mrs. Beate Adolf of Heinrich Boll Stiftung Berlin (hbs) and Ms Sophia Pritscher of the Department of Architecture, Technischen Universitat Munich (Technical University of Munich) coordinated the Munich’s end of the working visit.
1. Stuttgart’s Brief Introduction
Stuttgart is a German city with population of about 623,738 (population.city, 2018) representing 0.76% of the Germany’s population, 82, 293, 457 (World Population Review, 2018). It is among the ten largest cities in Germany ranked number six on population size after Berlin, Hamburg, Munich, Cologne and Frankfurt am Main (World Population Review, 2018). The city is the capital of Baden-Württemberg and most populous within the State among the three other administrative divisions of Karlsruhe, Turbingen and Freiburg. Other adjoining metropolitan areas to Stuttgart are Esslingen, Goppingen, Boblingen, Ludwigsburg and Rems-Murr-Kreis among others. With 207 square kilometer, the population density is 3,013 people/km2 which is about 60 times above world average of 50.79 people/ km2 (StatisticTimes.com, 2017).
2. City’s Architecture
The city’s morphology shows that Stuttgart is a city of many parts divided and connected by river, multi-line rail network, arterial roads, basins and parks. The Table 1.1 below further shows different parts of the city and buffer elements.
Table 1.1: City Districts and Buffer Elements
3. Stuttgart Climate Resilience Development Model
A careful and detailed observations of the city shows that many of these buffer elements are critical flood resilience strategies for the city. For a city nestled among Württemberg hill, Stuttgart Cauldron valley and Neckar valley, the risk of water flow pattern leading to catastrophic flood or deluge could be very high. However, the interspersed of settlements around basins, parks and resilience transportation infrastructure appears to have kept flood risk disaster to the barest minimum.
Obviously, the city’s interspersed physical development architecture ensures that an emergence of climate related disaster in any part of the city is isolated and resolved within the affected locality without necessarily leading to the lock down of the entire city.
4. City’s Assets
The city hosts some of the renowned automobile and engineering organizations in the world including Daimler AG, Mercedes Benz, Porsche and Bosch. The agriculture mainstay is vineyard spread across different parts of the city, especially in the hilly neighborhoods. It also hosts one of the German’s reputable brewery, Dinkelacker.
Stuttgart is home to many historical and monumental buildings among which are Mercedes Bez Museum, Posrche Museum, Stuttgart City Library and the prestigious Le Corbusier Houses. On July 17, 2016, Le Corbusier Houses in Stuttgart built in 1927 and popularly known as The Weißenhofsiedlung (“Weissenhof Estate”), were among the seventeen Le Corbusier’s projects inducted into the list of UNESCO World Heritage sites as part of “Outstanding Contribution to the Modern Movement” in seven countries.
5. Observations and Conclusions
Although, the driving culture among the motorists requires significant ethical compliance, but the city’s mixed transportation modes of city buses, cars, rail system and air are well integrated and connected. The hilly terrain of the city is not a good encouragement for cycling.
In addition to the trappings of successful metropolitan area in Europe, one major strength of Stuttgart is the successful utilization of its valley shaped terrain to produce a unique, ordered and aesthetically appealing city. The functionality of city’s infrastructure was not hampered by the physical constrains. The city exemplified best practice in adapting and mitigating flood risk disaster especially when cities are in the race to fulfilling the Paris Agreement on Climate Change.
Stuttgart may take a lead in convening discussions among the cities that have similar physical and landform characteristics to share best practices in physical development, housing, transportation, energy, and water and sanitation infrastructure delivery. The city built up characteristics could be a good knowledge platform for other cities with similar terrain especially in the Southern hemisphere. Freetown, Serra Leone, Abuja, Nigeria, Port-au-Prince, Haiti and Kathmandu, Nepal are some of the cities around hills that can share knowledge with Stuttgart when reforming the physical fabric of their cities.
Platform for the Article
Stuttgart, a Model of Climate Resilience Metropolis was prepared by Lookman Oshodi, the Project Director of Arctic Infrastructure (AI) during the visit to Stuttgart, Germany to assess projects on urbanization and infrastructure in Africa by the Masters Students of Architecture in the Department of Architecture, Stuttgart State Academy of Art and Design in April 2017. The department is led by Professor Fabienne Hoelzel
StatisticTimes.com, 2017, List of countries by population, updated 16 April 2017, http://www.statisticstimes.com, accessed on June 30, 2018
Wikipedia, Stuttgart,https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stuttgart, accessed on June 30, 2018
World Population Review 2018, Germany population, 2018 worldpopulationreview.com/countries/germany-population/, accessed on June 30, 2018
Tripsavvy, 2017, Stuttgart’s Le Corbusier Houses, The Latest UNESCO World Heritage Site in Germany, https://www.tripsavvy.com/stuttgarts-le-corbusier-houses-4109279, accessed on June 30, 2018
1. Kaduna State Social and Economic Development
Kaduna Sate was incorporated in 1976 out of which Katsina State was carved out in 1987. It covers an estimated area of 46,056 square kilometers which is about 5% of Nigeria’s total land area, 923,768 square kilometers. The state, in the North West geo-political region of Nigeria, shares borders with Zamfara, Katsina, Niger, Kano, Bauchi, Nasarawa, Plateau States and the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. It is located globally between latitudes 9˚ 03¹ and 11˚ 32¹ North of the Equator and longitudes 6˚ 05¹ and 80 38¹ East of the Greenwich Meridian (Kaduna State Government, 2013).
Major Rivers in Kaduna State include the Kaduna, Kogum, Gurara, Matsirga and Galma River. Kaduna State experiences a tropical continental climate with two distinct seasonal climates, dry and rainy seasons. The wet season (May to October) is very much heavier in the Southern part of the State in places like Kafanchan and Kagoro, which have an average of over 1,524 mm, than in the Northern part like Makarfi and Ikara, which have an average of 1,016mm. The average annual rainfall and humidity are 1,272.5 mm and 56.64%; respectively while the average daily minimum and maximum temperatures are 15.1 and 35.18 degrees Celsius (Kaduna State Government, 2013).
The population of the state according to 2006 census stands at 6,113,503. Using 3.18% growth rate allowed by the National Population Commission, the projected population of Kaduna State stands at 7,474,369 (2013 projection), therefore, by the year 2018 the state population would be 8,446,417 (Kaduna State Government, 2013). At the estimated population of 8,446,417 and land area of 46,056 square kilometers, the population density is 183 people per square kilometer which is lower than the national density of 197 people per square kilometer. The state’s population structure shows that majority of the citizenry currently live in urban and semi urban towns like Kaduna, Zaria, Kafanchan, Kagoro, Zonkwa, Birnin Gwari, Makarfi and Zangon Kataf. Twenty two percent (22%) of the population are infants, aged between 0-5 years while 18% are children aged 6-11 years. The average life expectancy in the state is estimated at only 44 years (Kaduna State Government, 2013).
Relatively, high number of people living in the urban and semi-urban centres are exerting significant pressures on the urban resources and infrastructure. The population of women, infants and children also suggests a high level of dependents and vulnerable groups in the state. Beyond the urban focus, there is a concentration of population on a central strip running from the north (Kudan, Sabon Gari, Zaria) all the way down to the south-east of the state (Sanga and Kaura) which is the main line of rail and road transportation. The western part of the state is the least populated.
The state currently has 23 Local Government Areas which were restructured into 46 Development Areas in 2004 to facilitate development. The senatorial zones of the Local Government Areas is depicted in Table 1.1
Table 1.1: Local Government Areas in Kaduna and their Senatorial Zones
|S/N||Senatorial Zone||Local Government Areas||No.|
|1||North||Ikara, Kubau, Kudan, Lere, Makarfi, Zaria, Sabon Gari, Soba||8|
|2||Central||Birnin Gwari, Chikun, Giwa, Igabi, Kajuru, Kaduna North, Kaduna South||7|
|3||South||Jaba, Jema’a, Kachia, Kagarko, Kaura, Kauru, Sanga, Zangon Kataf||8|
2. Overview of Kaduna Metropolitan Area
Kaduna metropolitan area is the state capital of Kaduna State in north-western Nigeria with significant natural landmark such as Kaduna River. The metropolis comprises four local government areas majorly Kaduna North and Kaduna South and considerable parts of Igabi and Chikun Local Governments. It is a trade centre and a major transportation hub for the surrounding agricultural areas with its rail and road junction. The population of Kaduna was 760,084 as of the 2006 Nigerian census. Rapid urbanization over the past decade has created an increasingly large population, now estimated to be around 1.3 million.
Kaduna is an industrial centre of Northern Nigeria, manufacturing products like textiles, machinery, steel, aluminum, petroleum products and bearings. However, the textile industry has been declining because of factories closing due to restrictive economic and operating conditions. Automobile manufacturing and pottery are also important part of Kaduna’s economy. Other light manufactures include plastics, pharmaceuticals, leather goods, and furniture. Kaduna refinery, one of Nigeria’s four main oil refineries is located in the city.
Majority of the settlement pattern in the city is grid and linear in characteristics showing high level of English colonial system inputs into the early stage of physical development planning. However, this has not prevented usual physical inequalities obvious in cities of Sub-Saharan Africa as the city is segregated along income basis. Despite its location in the Savannah region of Nigeria, Kaduna still has considerable component of green areas with trees and shrubs in metropolitan areas. This with climate change resilience implications.
3. Observations on Urban Development and Infrastructure in Kaduna City
First level observation of Kaduna city at the entry points offers typical scenery of a Sub Saharan African city characterized by basic transportation infrastructure, unequal distribution of adequate housing, street and pavement trading and overhead cabling reticulation system. Also, the city’s scenery and aesthetic appeal are not at par with the history and popularity of Kaduna within the geo-political space of Nigeria.
a. City Architecture
Significant portion of Kaduna city is dominated by military uses some of which are Headquarters 1 Division Nigerian Army, Nigerian Defence Academy and the Defence Industries Corporation of Nigeria (DICON) among others. With the huge military bases, Kaduna can be described as the ‘Security and Intelligence Hub of Nigeria”. This is a major strength that Kaduna is yet to be fully explored to drive social, economic and technology prosperity of the city. It is not in doubt that the presence of military facilities in the city would have created direct and indirect job opportunities for residents, but unable to transform the city into “Military Wealth Hub”. The city is yet to neither become the convergence point for military rank and file in Africa nor produce globally acclaimed service or product that can enhance the resolution of climate change induced crisis between herdsmen and farmers. It is yet to join the league of Artificial Intelligence cities or convinced the nation on the compelling need to adopt holistic space technology in enhancing food security, reducing the flood and desertification related disaster, and mitigating security threats. The large presence of military installations in the city ought to make Abuja – Kaduna Expressway the safest and most secured highway in Nigeria. Kaduna has significant and comparative advantage over many African cities to turn security land uses into opportunities for its residents.
Housing in Kaduna metropolitan areas depicts the usual segregation characteristics of many African cities along the line of low-income and high income earners. At the high income end in Government Reservation Areas (GRAs) are the walled and gated houses while at the low-income end of the city in Sabon Tasha, Tundun Wada and other communities are opened unplanned informal settlements. Kaduna will do well to reposition its housing sector towards ensuring economic prosperity for all categories of residents, promotion of Northern Nigeria cultural values and absorbing commuting population from Abuja, the Federal Capital City of Nigeria, since the central city development orientation in Abuja is not flexible to accommodate the mix of different income groups and does not totally envisaged influx of social and economic migrants.
Transportation is largely land based consisting of road and rail systems. The road which is the dominant transportation mode has a network of arterial, collector and access roads. There is visible improvement and reconstruction of many roads especially in the arterial and collector categories while new drainage infrastructure are being delivered around many access roads in certain communities in metropolitan Kaduna.
The flagship rail system for the city is Abuja – Kaduna rail system with station at Rigasa. The 186.5 km standard gauge railway has been moving average daily passenger of 1,280 between Kaduna and Abuja (All Africa, 2018). There is also 750 passengers capacity Kaduna Airport located near Isira community, about 12 kilometers from metropolitan Kaduna (Federal Airports Authority of Nigeria, 2016).
d. Water and Sanitation
The services in the water and sanitation sector in Kaduna city cannot be totally isolated from the overall scenario in Kaduna State since there is no disaggregated information for the city. Water and sanitation system are currently not vibrant in meeting the needs of the residents as many rural/urban communities lack access to clean, potable water and regular sanitation. Estimated water demand for the state is put at 751 million liters per day (mld) while the current service access is 315 mld (Kaduna State Government, 2016).
There are five existing Dams built and owned by the State Government mainly for water supply and limited irrigation, one for Kaduna Town and the rest for four other towns: Zaria, Birnin Gwari, Ikara and Saminaka. The state has twelve (12) water works for the treatment and supply of potable water through distribution network estimated at 2,553.80 km for all the water works to nine (9) urban centers in the state. The current installed capacity of the water works is 380 mld of water while the requirement for the urban centers is 540.25mld. The actual production from the 12 water works is 214.8 mld out of the 380mld installed capacity as at 31 December, 2015. This low production is as a result of erratic power supply and dilapidated equipment (Kaduna State Government, 2016).
The sanitation situation in Kaduna is not better. Access to sanitation as it relates to safe disposal of fecal waste is still low. About 7.8% of the estimated population was reported to be practicing Open Defecation in 2011 (Kaduna State Government, 2016). According to National Demographic Health Survey (NDHS) 2013, 51% of the population and 22.1% of households in Kaduna state have access to an improved, not shared sanitation facility. This is markedly higher than UNICEF (2015) estimates which state that Benue, Bauchi and Kaduna have relatively higher proportion (30-40%) of improved latrine coverage compared to other states.
Limited access to water is one of the key factors identified for lack of adequate sanitation as observed in the residential communities and public facilities such as hospitals, schools and market places. However, the Kaduna State Government’s Sector Implementation Plan and the current intervention efforts of United States Agency for International Development (USAID) through Development Innovations Group (DIG), United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), African Development Bank (AfDB) and Islamic Development Bank (ISDB) and may alter the challenging situation significantly in the long term.
4. Recommended Steps to Transforming Kaduna City
The name Kaduna is far ahead and beyond the development on ground. Hence, the need for the relevant authorities to rethink and restructure the strategies of governance architecture, mechanism of urban development, approaches of delivering urban infrastructure and services, and engagement with military institutions.
A careful observation of Kaduna city gives it three inherent and basic comparative advantages among other cities in Nigeria, the geographical centralized position in the northern Nigeria, high proximity to the Federal Capital City of Nigeria, Abuja and large concentration of military institutions within its boundary. Also, of good strength is the implied brand of Kaduna as the political headquarters of the northern Nigeria. These are platforms for Kaduna to transforming its development indicators, strengthen its ability to meet the needs of the residents and create significant influence in both regional (Africa) and global development. Some of the options below may be considered;
a. Establishment of Kaduna Military Innovation Agency (KADMIA)
The proposed Kaduna Military Innovation Agency (KADMIA), a Kaduna State Agency, comprising both military and civilian strategists will work to exploring how the large presence of military institutions in Kaduna will turn to huge social and economic benefits for the residents of the city while at the same time placing Kaduna among the first ranking military innovation cities in the world. Parts of the agency mandates will be to identify and facilitate the execution of policies, programs and projects that will be of global relevance with direct positive impacts on the livelihoods of Kaduna’s residents and attracting local and foreign visitor’s expenditure to the city of Kaduna through friendly military activities.
b. Prioritization of Transportation Sector
Due to its geographical central location in the northern part of Nigeria and high proximity to the Federal Capital City of Nigeria, Abuja, transportation will be a major sector that will define the future of Kaduna city. Transportation in this context means road, rail, air and petroleum pipe network. The impending urbanization that will trail the July 2016 inaugurated Abuja-Kaduna 186.5 km standard gauge railway and the emerging 3,421 kilometers national networks including Kano-Kaduna-Ibadan-Lagos network (Vanguard, 2017) should put the entire Kaduna transport system at alert for secondary and tertiary distribution system within the city and in the entire Northern region of Nigeria. To enhance the preparedness for this role, it is ideal to have a standalone Ministry of Transportation from the current Ministry of Works, Housing and Transport.
In addition to focus on road and rail transportation systems, the new Ministry of Transportation should have strong interface with the federal agencies responsible for Kaduna Airport and petroleum pipe network within the city.
c. Transit Oriented Development
Since Kaduna will play major roles in regional transportation system and in the mobility of people from the city to Abuja on regular basis, principles of Transit Oriented Development (TOD) should be adopted as part of city’s overall physical development strategies. Large scale housing delivery should be a key integral part of the TOD, if adopted. However, caution must be taken to avoid the pitfalls of discriminatory housing delivery framework which segregates residents based on their income. An inclusionary housing strategy can be adopted to escape the poverty and insecurity traps created by age long discriminatory housing system in many cities of Sub Saharan Africa.
Kaduna has for long perceived as the modern capital and political city of the northern Nigeria, however the realities on ground is yet to fully capture this image. To make a transformation into a sustainable global influential city, Kaduna needs to harness its strength through the suggested measures to be backed with long term vision and development plans. Kaduna has a strong potential, but until that potential is translated into tangible opportunities for both internal and external stakeholders, Kaduna is an untapped gold of the northern Nigeria.
Platform for Study
The platform to have insight into the development in Kaduna was provided during the assessment of governance and institutional framework for urban sanitation in Bauchi and Kaduna (March – June, 2017). A WASH Coordination Project (WCP) of Development Innovations Group (DIG) and United States Agency for International Development (USAID). The project has Associate Professor Taibat Lawanson of the University of Lagos and other key personnel as team members.
All Africa, 2018, Nigeria: Buhari Commissions 2 Trains, 10 Coaches, 5 January. Available at http://allafrica.com/stories/201801050072.html, accessed on January 31, 2018
Kaduna State Government 2013, Kaduna State development plan 2014-2018, Ministry of Economic Planning, September 2013
Kaduna State Government 2016, Kaduna State water and sanitation sector implementation plan 2017 – 2019
Kaduna State Government 2015, Kaduna State Development Plan 2016-2020, Ministry of Economic Planning September 2015
UNICEF, 2015, UNICEF annual report for United Kingdom’s Department For International Development grant SC140236, “sanitation, hygiene and water in Nigeria project (SHAWN II)”, March 2014 to February 2015
Vanguard 2017, FG plans 10 new rail lines nationwide as new coaches arrive, October 2. Available at https://www.vanguardngr.com/2017/10/fg-plans-10-new-rail-lines-nationwide-new-coaches-arrive/, accessed on January 31, 2018
Pictures of Infrastructure and Development in Kaduna
Over the years, cities in developing countries, especially in Sub Saharan African have been dealing with the challenges of pedestrians crossing the roads instead of making use of pedestrian overhead bridges or underpasses, where available.
In many major transport hubs within the city of Lagos, pedestrians cross the road freely with little or no regard for safety considerations. Some of the factors responsible for crossing the roads instead of utilizing the pedestrian bridges, where available and as mentioned by pedestrians, include deteriorated conditions of the bridges, lack of security to lives and properties on the bridge, the unfriendly nature of the bridges (number of steps) and congestion.
In designing and implementation of road infrastructure in the city, priority is sometime misguided and biased on income disparity. For example, in the design of improved Lekki – Epe Expressway, a pedestrian overhead bridge was closely constructed to Victoria Garden City (VGC), a high income neighbourhood where car ownership and access to other modes of private transportation is high. On the other hand, residents of Ikota, a low-income community with little access to private cars on the same route, have made several representations to both the road concessionaire/contractor and the government on the need to provide pedestrian bridge on Ikota section of the expressway. Such representations are yet to yield result despite evidences of road related fatalities presented by the residents.
Previously, government responses to pedestrians crossing in Lagos are erection of road barriers (mesh wire fence, prominently) on the road medians and arrest of pedestrians that crossed the roads. Although, these two approaches are still prevalent, but other models such as construction of new pedestrian bridges with roof cover, lighting system and ramp for physically challenged individuals, and provision of security personnel on the bridges have been introduced which have reduced the rate of road crossing in some hotspots, especially Ojota. Despite these measures, many pedestrians still find it preferable to cross the roads which means the government need to look beyond current strategies.
Resolving this age long urban challenge, many cities have implemented innovative and sustainable models where pedestrians cross the road through overhead bridges that afford excellent shopping opportunities. In this case, bridges are built into the mall or malls are used as the bridge serving as attraction to the pedestrian from the entry to exit point. In many cases, such pedestrian bridges always take their roots from the transport stations. Ojota and Onipanu in Lagos are good places where this innovation can be implemented. Construction of user friendly bridges through the use of escalators are another best practice some cities are adopting to attract pedestrians. This should be a good option for Lagos, provided there is sustainable energy base to support the infrastructure. Some cities, however, implement hybrid or multiple best practices of the foregoing approaches to deter pedestrian road crossing.
Underpass is also widely used in cities to promoting pedestrian safety against road crossing. Apart from Independence underpass at Maryland and locked tunnel on Awolowo Road, Ikoyi, Lagos city is not popular with underpass and tunneling infrastructure system. Based on its population and high development density, the option is worth exploring but with consideration to local physical and technical factors.
The pictures and videos below show pedestrians’ crossing infrastructure in Lagos, Nigeria, Coventry, United Kingdom and Stuttgart in Germany.
Pictures contributions in Lagos by Ayotunde Akomolafe and Abiola Falaye.
I have the pleasure to express my appreciation to the Nigerian Institute of Town Planners, Lagos State Chapter for the surprise “Award of Excellence” given to me on Friday, September 30, 2016.
My appreciation goes to the Executive Council and all members of the chapter for this honor. Although, awarded in absentia, but received with great sense of humility.
Kindly be assured of my continuous selfless contributions and service to the Institute with a view to making city of Lagos livable and sustainable for all residents irrespective of their social and economic background.
In the past few decades, African cities have been experiencing huge population increases. This is mainly due to galloping urbanization and rural exodus. It is estimated that by 2020 some 55% of the African population will be living in urban areas (African Association of Public Transport, 2010). Such fast‐growing cities face enormous challenges in terms of infrastructure provision and the need to cope with the increasing demand for transport. This is especially acute as much of the existing road infrastructure in African cities is far from being appropriate for the actual transport demand. In addition, apart from a few remaining companies, almost all publicly owned and managed public transport enterprises in Africa ceased to exist during the 1990s, often as a consequence of structural adjustment policies required to comply with aid programmes associated with international agencies. Therefore, the public transport sector has suffered more than 15 years of neglect and this, combined with escalating urban populations, has resulted in chaotic, unsustainable, time‐ and money‐wasting transport systems in most African cities (African Association of Public Transport, 2010).
Today throughout Africa, public transport is dominated by the operations of the ‘disorganized’ informal sector (that is market‐based, unregulated, low-capacity service offers). The dominance of these services hampers economic development and reduces the quality of life for citizens as the large number of vehicles required to meet demand causes congestion and parking issues and, in the main, citizens suffer with high levels of local associated pollution and low levels of security and safety (African Association of Public Transport, 2010).
The foregoing situation is not totally different from the system in Lagos, the largest city in Sub-Saharan Africa. Lagos is a City-State regarded as the economic and commercial capital of Nigeria with estimated population of 23, 305,971. It has a total area of 3, 577.28 square kilometers of which 779.56 square kilometers representing about 22% is wetland and a population density of 6, 515 persons per square kilometers (Lagos State Government, 2013).
With more than 23 million inhabitants, Lagos is one of the largest cities in the world, and its population is growing rapidly, at a rate of nearly 3.2% per annum. The poor condition of the road network and of the public transport system affects severely the development of the city and the working and living conditions of the population, particularly the most vulnerable. Rapid growth of the private vehicle fleet, combined with reliance on commercial vehicles and motorcycles including Danfo, Shared Taxis, Okada, Keke Marwa and boat has resulted in extreme traffic congestion throughout the city, and poor‐quality public transport outlook. Before 2007 when LAMATA law as regulator was amended and implementation of LAMATA flagship project, BRT-Lite commenced, public transport in Lagos could largely and best be described as unregulated, chaotic, inefficient, expensive, low quality and dangerous, both in terms of road traffic accidents and personal safety. There are about 2,600 km of roads in Lagos that are frequently congested, with over 1 million vehicles plying the roads on a daily basis. (African Association of Public Transport, 2010, LAMATA, 2014).
In order to provide consistent planning and efficient implementation of the policies and address some of the issues previously mentioned, the Lagos State government established, with the support of the World Bank, the Lagos Metropolitan Area Transport Authority (LAMATA) in 2002, the executing agency of the Lagos Urban Transport Project (LUTP) which was initially started in 1994-95 on the basis of building capacity to manage the transport system, identifying the priority actions, investments and enabling measures for improvement of the sector.
LAMATA has the overall role of coordinating the transport policies, programmes and actions of all transport‐related agencies and of implementing and managing public transport services in Lagos State. The ‘BRT‐Lite scheme’ is one of the flagship programmes of LAMATA while other institutions have emerged in the road and water sector.
In spite of improvement in the transport sector in Lagos through LAMATA and other agencies, laws and plans, challenges remain undaunted. In the last five years, the city and its residents have had series of misunderstanding on issues bothering on transportation. At different times, the traffic management officials have engaged in free for all with police, armed forces, members of transport union or community members. Even the former Governor of Lagos State has had cause to challenge a Colonel of Nigerian Army on the street of Lagos on traffic issues.
The petroleum tanker drivers have repeatedly shut down access to Apapa, the Nigerian port complex, and other neighboring roads due to disagreement with the Lagos State Government while buses under Bus Rapid Transit and LAGBUS systems have become target of attacks during any urban crisis involving government officials, members of transport union and vulnerable street boys.
Residents who lost their homes without compensation to the transport infrastructure expansion have took to various platforms to criticize the transformation while some arrested crime suspects have attributed their involvement in crime activities to the loss of their livelihoods as a result of property demolitions for road infrastructure expansion or renewal. The current governor directive to the traffic management officials to stop the harassment of residents under the guise of traffic control has been perceived in some quarters as the reason for traffic congestion in the city-state.
2. POPULATION AND TRANSPORTATION IN LAGOS
Lagos State is regarded as the economic and commercial capital of Nigeria with estimated 23, 305,971 population. It has a total area of 3, 577.28 square kilometers of which 779.56 square kilometers representing about 22% is wetland and a population density of 6, 515 persons per square kilometers. Population has continued to grow at a rate of 3.2% per annum. If the current growth rate of 3.2% remains the same, the population of Lagos will be as shown in Table 2.1.
The state government is aiming at transforming the city–state into Africa’s model mega city and global economic center. In a bid to realize this aim, the state government, in 2007, adopted 10 point development agenda as strategic guide for transforming the city–state. The ten point agenda are roads, transportation, power and water supply, environment and physical planning, health, education, empowerment, food security, shelter and employment.
Table 2.1: Projected Population for Lagos from 2015 to 2050
S/N Year Population Population Density/km2 Remark
1 2015 23, 305,971 6, 515
2 2020 27,281,339 7,626
3 2025 31,934,798 8,927 (Terminal year for Lagos Development Plan)
4 2030 37,382,011 10,450
5 2032 39,812,738 11,129 (Terminal Year for Strategic Transport Master Plan )
6 2035 43,758,371 12,232
7 2040 51,222,365 14,319
8 2045 59,959,516 16,761
9 2050 70,186,998 19,620
Source: Urban Mobility Research Group, Heinrich Boll Stiftung, 2015
With the rising population, increasing population density and over 70% of Lagos in the form of slums or informal settlements, future transportation system in the city without strong bias for land use planning and sustainable integrated mobility system will not lead to the envisaged significant transformation of the city.
3. CURRENT STATUS OF TRANSPORTATION IN LAGOS
The transport network in the state is predominantly road based with 90% of total passengers and goods moved through that mode. The state has natural water ways for ferry services and federal rail network which will be complemented by the emerging state rail network. The demand for trips in the Lagos megacity region by all modes (including walking) was estimated at 22million per day with walk trips accounting for 40% of total trips in metropolitan Lagos. See Table 3.1 below
The rapid increase in population and standard of living will bring the daily demand for trips to about 40 million/day by 2032 (Lagos Metropolitan Area Transport Authority, 2014)
Table 3.1: Passenger Traffic per Day in Lagos
S/N Mode No. of Passengers/Day Percentage to Total Passengers
1 Walking 8,800,000 40%
2 Bus Rapid Transit 90,000 0.41%
3 Regulated bus (LAGBUS) 150,000 1%
4 Private Cars 2,508,000 11%
5 Semi-Formal Mini Buses (Danfos) 9,982,000 45%
6 Federal Mass Transit Train 132,000 1%
7 Water Transportation System 74,000 0.34%
8 Other Non-data Modes (including, motorcycle, tricycle, bicycle, taxis, articulated vehicles, mini-vans and boats) 264,000 1%
9 Total Passengers Traffic/Day 22, 000, 000 100
Source: Lagos Metropolitan Area Transport Authority, 2015
The mode of transport consists of High Occupancy Vehicles (HOV) regulated buses (Bus Rapid Transit – BRT and LAGBUS, High Occupancy Vehicles (HOV) unregulated buses otherwise known as Molue buses, Low Occupancy Vehicles (LOV) otherwise known as Danfos, motorcycle taxis otherwise known as Okadas, tricycles (Keke Marwa), cabs, ferries, boats (Makoko), trains and private vehicles (cars). Others are articulated vehicles of different uses (fuel tankers, container laden trucks and sand tipping trucks among others). Table 3.2 provides data on quantity of modes in the city;
Table 3.2: Quantity of Modes in Lagos
S/N Mode Number Remark
1 Number of vehicles on the road Approx 2,000,000 (Rep. 25 to 30% of Nigeria total)
2 Vehicle annual rate of increase 100,000 vehicles per annum
3 Vehicular density 264 vehicles/ km of roadway Estimated at 30 vehicles/km National average
4 High capacity buses Approx 1,034
(BRT(Old) – 100
BRT(New –Nov.2015) – 434 LAGBUS – 500 Over 23,000 required at 1 bus/1,000 population
5 Mini buses (Danfo) Over 145,000 registered
6 High capacity buses (Molue) Less than 150 Being phased out
7 Taxis Estimated at around 7,000
8 Other vehicles Estimated at around 5,000
9 Motorcycles Now estimated around 100,000
Source: Lagos Metropolitan Area Transport Authority, 2015
In the mix of transportation in Lagos State, it is crucial to note the existing quantity of road infrastructure which has been acknowledged of carrying over 90% of daily passengers’ movement. The road characteristics are shown in Table 3.3.
Table 3.3: Level of Road Infrastructure in Lagos
S/N Classification/Ownership Length (km) Percentage
1 Federal Road 468 6
2 State Road 1,287 17
3 Local Government Roads 5,843 77
4 Total Road Network 7,598 100
5 Rail Network 30 –
Source: Lagos Metropolitan Area Transport Authority, 2015
4. CHALLENGES IN THE TRANSPORTATION SECTOR IN LAGOS
The challenges in the transportation sector are multifaceted ranging from inadequacy of infrastructure, non-standardization of operations, poor management and technical capacities. The problems in the sector can be summarized in a statement extracted from the Lagos Development Plan 2012 -2015;
“The transport system is inadequate for the growing urban population in the State. All modes of transport have challenges. The bus public transport operation suffers from high levels of fragmentation and inadequate regulation. The rail transport has few existing rail corridors and the existing corridors are grossly under-utilised. In the water transport, there is no coherence amongst water transport regulatory agencies (LASWA, NIMASA and NIWA). In the non-motorized transport, infrastructure facilities are extremely limited throughout the State. Finally in the paratransit mode of transportation (okadas), there is indiscipline and regulations are not effectively enforced.”
4.1 INADEQUACY OF FORMAL MODES
With the formal public transportation contributing only 2.75% of daily mobility in the city, it is clear that these modes cannot meet the demand of the Lagos residents, hence semi-formal and informal operators from mini buses (danfo), motorcycles (okada), tricycles (keke Marwa) and boats (example of Makoko community) sectors will continue to fill the gap. Underlying the need to fill this mobility gap by the informal operators are unemployment and high poverty rate in the city and not necessarily as a choice career or grounded profession. The incursion into the transportation sector by the unemployed youth and other categories of the population who seek means of livelihood has contributed to traffic chaos and unethical behavior among the informal operators.
4.2 INADEQUACY OF INFRASTRUCTURE
The road infrastructure is grossly inadequate to meet the trips demand of the residents. The road network density, put at 0.6 kilometres per 1000 population, is low. Alternatively, Lagos State has 80 cars per 1000 people, with a high car density of 264 vehicles per kilometer of roadway. The network’s efficiency is similarly low, with a limited number of primary corridors carrying the bulk of the traffic.
Inadequately designed interchanges, where they exist at all, provide only partial access to the primary network. Many tertiary roads play the roles of secondary ones. So far few junctions have been signalized while transport stations, where available, are in a disorganized state. To understand the level of inadequacy in the transport infrastructure in the State, Tables 4.1 and 4.2 provides comparative analysis for road and rail networks in similar large cities across the world.
Table 4.1: Comparative Analysis of Road Network between Lagos and other Large Cities
S/N City Population Length (km) Density (persons/km)
1 Lagos 23, 305,971 7,598 3,067
2 Tokyo Metropolis 13,282,271 24,431 544
3 Seoul Special City 10,440,000 7,689.2 1,358
Source: Urban Mobility Research Group, Heinrich Boll Stiftung, (UMRG,hbs) 2015
Table 4.2: Comparative Analysis of Rail Network between Lagos and other Large Cities
S/N City Population System Length (km) Density (persons/km) No. of Stations No. of Lines Daily Ridership
1 Lagos 23, 305,971 30 (220 Proposed by 2032) 776,867 11 (On-going) (7 Proposed) 132,000 (10,213,984 by 2032)
2 Seoul Capital Area 25,800,000 940 27,447 – 19 6,898,630
3 Shanghai 24,151,500 468
(877 Proposed) 51,606 303 12
(22 Proposed) 6,235,616
4 Beijing 21,148,000 456 (1,000 Proposed by 2020) 46,377 270 17
(22 Proposed) 6,739,726
5 London 8,615,246 402 (54% surface & 46% sub-surface) 21,430 270 11 3,205,479
6 New York 19,746,227 368(40% surface & 60% sub-surface) 53,658 468 24 4,561,643
7 Moscow 12,197,596 317.5 (Expanding to 467.5 by 2020) 38,418 190 12 6,545,205
8 Tokyo 13,216,000 310 42,632 290 13 8,498,630
9 Madrid + Metro 6,500,000 293 (Expanding to 317 by 2015) 22,184 300 13 1,720,547
10 Paris 2,249,975 218 10,320 300 16 4,175,342
Source: http://www.railway-technology.com/features/featurethe-worlds-longest-metro-and-subway-systems-4144725/, 2013
4.3 ROAD SAFETY, ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL CONCERNS
Poor driver behavior, public transport operators’ indiscipline, unsafe vehicle conditions, uneven road conditions, poor street lighting, lack of pedestrian facilities and poor traffic enforcement all combine to produce an accident rate that is probably among the highest in the world. The environmental concerns include vehicle emissions, improper waste oil disposal and high traffic noise level. Expensive transport fares, high accident rates, unreliability of the transport system and forced evictions due to expansion of transport infrastructure constitute the major social issues.
4.4 INEFFICIENT LAND USE PATTERN
Since over 70% of development in Lagos is in form of slum and informal settlements (Lagos Development Plan 2012 -2015), the land use pattern is also a reflection of informalities. Self allocated land system and self built housing system are predominant in the city with large scale consequential compromise of road infrastructure standard and delivery. Detailed observation of city architecture revealed that navigation in many communities can be most possible through low occupancy transport equipment and this explained proliferation of informal mini buses (danfo), motorcycles (okada), tricycles (keke Marwa) as major components of transportation in Lagos. The scenario leaves about 52% of households in Lagos (2,275,837 households) with lack of access to adequate transportation (Lagos Bureau of Statistics, 2013). Correction of land use pattern in many communities to accommodate expanded transport infrastructure are often through forced evictions.
4.5 LACK OF ROBUST PLATFORM TO ATTRACT ORGANIZED TRANSPORT COMPANIES
Within the city of Lagos, there is obvious absence of organized private sector driven transport companies. The city transport landscape is largely dominated by self procured transport equipment such as mini buses (danfo), motorcycles (okada), tricycles (keke Marwa) and boats. There is no vibrant local or statewide transport policy that could stimulate, encourage or support organized private transport companies to operate and participate in the intra-city market despite the large population and huge daily mobility demand. The existing organized private transport companies operate intercity journeys with take-off points from individually owned transport stations.
4.6 WEAK MODAL INTEGRATION
The current transport modal network is not proportionally integrated. At the existing rail stations, there is lack of cohesiveness, orderliness and timeliness on the receptacle road transportation, where available. Rather than imposing signage that should provide guidance to the land transport station, arriving visitors and passengers at the city airport are greeted by multitude of individuals struggling to get passengers for their parked vehicles. There is obvious disconnection among all the modes within the city save for Ikorodu water transport terminal that offers pike and ride system.
4.7 NON-STANDARDIZATION OF FARES
Within the city, transport fare depends on certain factors such as the bargaining power of the passenger, the weather condition in the city, period of the day, condition of the vehicle and psycho-mood of the operator. There is no fare standardization within the system except for the recently introduced BRT and LAGBUS systems which currently accommodates less than 3% of daily mobility in the city.
4.8 LOW COVERAGE OF PETROLEUM PIPENETWORK
The city of Lagos hosts petroleum products depots and provide warehouses for different organizations operating in the downstream sector of Nigerian oil and gas industry. Apart from large concentration of petroleum depot facilities in the city, especially in the Apapa axis, there is low pipe network coverage connecting the city to other parts of the country leaving the transportation of petroleum products to the haulage trucks, otherwise known as petroleum tankers. For most parts of the year, the consistence assembly of the trucks in Apapa contributed to rapid deterioration of roads and technically shut down of Apapa transport axis from other parts of Lagos.
The shutdown of Apapa transport axis regularly leads to diversion of traffic to arterial roads in the city including the three bridges over Lagos lagoon that are already congested. It is noteworthy that Lagos lagoon has three (3) bridges to serve more than 23 million people while Thames River in London has 34 bridges serving more than 8 million people.
4.9 CONSISTENCE LOCK DOWN OF CITY DUE TO SCARCITY OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS
In the recent years, the city has witnessed regular lock down, sometime up to six months in any particular year. This is due to perennial shortage of petroleum products which reduces mobility by keeping many vehicles off the road and formation of vehicular queues around petrol filling stations with attendant traffic bottleneck. Many of the filling stations are located along the primary and arterial corridors in the city.
4.10 LOW COST RECOVERY
The transport system characterized by inadequacy and poor infrastructure, proliferation of informal sector operators, weak modal integration, inefficient land use pattern, restricted network and absence of organized private sector operators will most possibly results in low cost recovery and inefficient collection systems. That appears to be the situation in Lagos as the rate of poverty in the city can be reflected in the transport equipment in the city portrayed by poor maintenance, low safety rate and poor quality service.
4.11 LACK OF MAINTENANCE STRATEGY AND CAPACITY
In the intra city transport market operations, there is one common factor both in the formal and informal sectors, lack of maintenance. This is clearly reflected in both the infrastructure and mobility equipment. Often, this manifest the sector as underdeveloped, compromise passengers’ safety and security, and contributes to the aesthetic depletion of the city, Lagos
4.12 INEFFICIENT USE OF OVERHEAD PEDESTRIAN BRIDGES
There appear to be long standing disconnect between pedestrians and overhead pedestrian bridges. Apart from the inadequacy of the bridges in different parts of the city-state, the available ones are rarely utilized. In many cases, pedestrians are being compelled by different law enforcement agencies to use the bridges. The crossings of highways by the pedestrians are often part of the factors reducing free flow of traffic on major roads.
5. TRANSPORT POLICY AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK IN LAGOS STATE
Vibrant transport policies and institutional framework is decisive to sustain the development of the sector and the economic growth in Lagos. The policies range from Federal Government of Nigeria established policies to Lagos State Government policies and laws which influence the operations and organization of transport system in the city, as outlined below;
5.1 REPORT OF THE VISION 2020 ON TRANSPORTATION
The report was prepared in 2009 recognizing efficient transport system as a key factor in the socio-economic development of the nation and improving of transport infrastructure as a necessary pre-condition for achieving the Nigerian Government’s 20:20:20 Vision. The aim of the report is to evolve an integrated and sustainable transport system that is safe, intermodal and in line with global best practices by year 2020.
5.2 LAGOS STATE TRANSPORT POLICY
There are different types of instruments governing transportation in Lagos, but yet to be coalesced into a single transport policy. Notwithstanding, the Lagos State Development Plan 2012 – 2025 provides clear direction of government in transport sector. Chapter 8.3 of the plan outlined the state’s aim, objectives and targets for the transportation in Lagos.
5.3 LAGOS STATE STRATEGIC TRANSPORT MASTER PLAN
The plan developed by the Lagos Metropolitan Area Transport Authority (LAMATA) is a strategic long-term path aimed at transforming the Lagos transport sector beyond its current challenges. The plan identifies possible transport infrastructure and services required for meeting travel demand by 2032, 7 years above the projections of Lagos State Development Plan 2012 – 2025.
5.4 LAGOS ROAD TRAFFIC AND ADMINISTRATION LAW 2012
The law cited as Lagos Road Traffic Law 2012 expanded the responsibility of the Lagos State Traffic Management Authority (LASTMA) on control and management of vehicular traffic in the State to include; general regulation of traffic on public highways, prohibition of certain mode of transportation on specified areas and regulation of conduct of operators, especially the drivers.
5.4.1 INFERENCE ON LAGOS ROAD TRAFFIC LAW
The Lagos Road Traffic Law 2012 has good intention of controlling and managing the vehicular traffic in the city-state but unfortunately it remains a stop gap measure towards resolving transportation problem in Lagos.
Many of the provisions of the law portray Lagos as a city under emergency rule where citizens are in extreme disagreement with government institutions. The provisions that offenders will forfeit their vehicles to the State which will in turn dispose the vehicle, after one month, failed to take into consideration the precarious poverty index of the residents of the city. In the process of using the law to outlaw the operations of motorcycle taxis (okadas) and tricycles (Keke Marwa), the situation becomes a keen struggle between policy’s declared illegality and livelihood of the citizens.
Since commencement of implementation in August 2012, it has set a situation whereby the city and its residents are in regular combat mode on transportation with high level of mutual suspicion rather than increase level of mutual collaboration. The law has continued to provoke variance between the State and the residents. Its implementation led to a protest by members of the Nigerian Bar Association, Ikeja Branch, over the incarceration of a member at Badagry prison in May 2013, on allegation of traffic offence. The protest led to withdrawal of the case against the charged member by the State (The Guardian, 2013). Other alleged traffic rules violators were not so provident.
Section 38 of the law provided that Commissioner may empower any Authority to fix time table for stage carriages on any route, determine stopping times at stands and stopping places; and determine the days and hours during which stage carriages may ply for hire on any specified route among other responsibilities. This provision shows introduction of confusion into transportation in the city where any agency can be called upon to deal with sensitive and intelligence part of transportation.
Despite enormous demand from the residents on compliance, the law does not recognize transport infrastructure especially adequacy, conditions and quality of roads as part of traffic control and management problems as it completely exonerates the State and its officials from any compulsion to make this available to the residents. The law missed an opportunity to empower residents to demand accountability on damaged roads for long period of time.
The traffic law seeks to curb the excesses of informal operators and other classes of vehicles by prescribing jail term and exorbitant fine as penalty for traffic offence; however, it presented Lagos to any discerning investor as a potential conflict point between the city and its residents. If the city want to join the league of global cities, imbibe the principles of new urbanism, inclusive, compassionate and smart city, there is need to urgently amend the Lagos Road Traffic Law 2012.
6.1 ADOPTION OF DECENTRALIZED DEVELOPMENT MODEL IN LAGOS STATE
At the heart of snail speed development in Lagos is over-centralization of tools and resources for development. Local Governments that ought to be at the center of development have been completely ostracized. To obtain disaggregated and vibrant city data, embark on local driven transport solution and to evolve sustainable and inclusive transport system in the city-state, complete devolution of power to Local Governments offer a pathway. Cities in City governance, administrative and management approach need to be considered.
The approach will confer chartered cities status on the existing 20 Local Governments with first level urban services including transportation while the existing 37 Local Council Development Areas will assume the status of cities with lower level services. The State Government will retain strategic direction, policies and service support while cities undertake service deliveries and city operations. A governance decentralization policy for Lagos State would be expected to provide full details on stakeholders, institutional framework, responsibilities and funding among other details.
6.2 UNBUNDLING OF LAGOS METROPOLITAN AREA TRANSPORT AUTHORITY (LAMATA)
The multiple roles of LAMATA as service provider, industry coordinator, fund warehouse and regulator are overwhelming for one institution. The authority can be unbundle into three institutions with LAMATA focusing on coordination and service delivery, Lagos Transport Safety and Standard Commission (LTSSC) can deal with industry wide standard, regulations, guidelines, equipment specification, emission control and consumer protection among other regulatory issues. LTSSC can absorb the current Vehicle Inspection Service. The third institution, Lagos Transport Fund (LTF) will mobilize, warehouse, grow and disburse the fund as appropriate.
It is important that at this stage of transportation in Lagos, LAMATA should begin vibrant engagement of local administrations by building their capacity to play significant roles in the future of transportation in Lagos.
6.3 BROAD BASED LAGOS STATE TRANSPORTATION POLICY
Despite the existence of Lagos State Strategic Transport Master Plan, the Lagos State Road Traffic Law 2012 and the excerpt of Lagos Development Plan 2012 – 2025, there is need for holistic and broad Lagos State Transportation Policy that will aggregate all the stakeholders in the sector, roles and responsibilities of stakeholders, clear entry and exit points for potential operators and investors and transparent finance and funding mechanism for the sector. Also, the policy will outline the training need and approaches for all categories of players in the sector, transport infrastructure maintenance operation framework, and monitoring and evaluation strategies for the transportation sector in Lagos.
6.4 LAND USE REVISION AND FUNDAMENTAL ARCHITECTURAL REDEVELOPMENT OF THE CITY
A key factor for the success of transport transformation in the city of Lagos is the redefinition of the city’s architecture. Retrofitting a 70% informal and slum city with a modern, smart and sustainable transportation system will be a complex task, hence, LAMATA should collaborate with the Ministry of Physical Planning and Urban Development, Lagos State Urban Renewal Agency, Ministry of Housing, Lands Bureau, Ministry of the Environment and other relevant agencies to set forth the redevelopment of the city in an inclusive and participatory manner.
In the past 10 years, if Lagos State Urban Renewal Agency (LASURA) has received considerable political, institutional and financial support from the Lagos State Government as compared to Lagos State Traffic Management Authority (LASTMA), transportation in Lagos would have improved tremendously while multifaceted problems confronting the sector today would have reduced significantly. LASURA large scale intervention would have re-organized many slum communities through upgrading and redevelopment with consequential increase in road and other transport infrastructure both in quantity and quality. Perhaps, the Lagos Road Traffic Law that threatened motorists and residents of the city would have been formulated in another inclusive manner considering the level of engagement between the residents of informal communities and LASURA.
It is instructive to note that while LASURA seeks to support, expand and improve on the livelihoods of the residents, LASTMA seeks to control, enforce and penalize the mobility of the residents.
6.5 VIBRANT RESETTLEMENT AND COMPENSATION POLICY
In many instances, transport infrastructure project implementation under LAMATA has continued to maintain the policy of “no formal title, no compensation” for victims of transformation without taking into consideration that formal title has been severely restricted to property owners in the State. This policy has continued to promote social and economic inequality, recycle poverty, increase the number of disloyal citizens and threaten democratic principles.
Project implementation under LAMATA needs to imbibe the principle of improving the conditions of Project Affected Persons (PAP) (The World Bank, 2015) instead of leaving them in a precarious social and economic condition than they were before the commencement of the project.
To achieve this principle, LAMATA may spearhead the reengineering of compensation system in Lagos State and partner with relevant agencies to develop city wide resettlement policy.
6.6 FORMULATION OF CLEAR AND NON-COMBATANT PHASE OUT PLAN FOR INFORMAL OPERATORS BY LAMATA AND THE LAGOS STATE MINISTRY OF EMPLOYMENT AND WEALTH CREATION
As a matter of priority, LAMATA, in collaboration with the new Ministry of Employment and Wealth Creation, should develop a phasing plan for converting informal operators into formal system. The plan will outline phase out strategies for Mini buses (Danfos), Motorcycles (Okadas), Tricycles (Keke Marwa) and Boats. The phase out plan should be devoid of autocratic approach which many governments in the cities of developing countries usually adopted. The plan should be participatory which all the stakeholders in the sector will be committed to and exhibit high level of transparency in its implementation.
Parts of the plan may include alternative opportunities for the operators in the informal sector, entry models into the formal sector, type and specifications of new transport equipment expected in the city, platforms for participation in the new formal system, incentive strategies and training opportunities for the operators with a view to share larger vision of the city.
6.7 EXPANSION OF TRANSPORT FUND TO SUPPORT PHASE OUT OF INFORMAL OPERATORS
If the State will consider non-combatant phase out and conversion of informal operators to formal system, expansion and utilization of existing Transport Fund will become expedient. The fund should be expanded to explore opportunities in the informal sector by raising fund through transport trade associations. Certain percentage of each association monthly income between 5% and 10% should be remitted to the fund which should be reinvested to the sector in supporting the conversion of informal operators to formal system. The fund should focus among other areas training, equipment procurement and maintenance, support mechanism and certification.
6.8 PIPELINE RETICULATION PLAN AS PART OF OVERALL TRANSPORT STRATEGY FOR THE CITY
Apart from Report on Transportation in the Vision 20:20 that outlined the roadmap for petroleum pipe network, all transportation plans in Lagos State does not considered pipeline network in the overall strategic direction for transportation in Lagos. Perhaps, the conclusion of the plans is that the pipe networks are the remit of Federal Government of Nigeria.
However, the pipe network triggered problem has technically knocked out Apapa from the road network in Lagos with consistence reverberating effect on traffic situation in the city of Lagos. LAMATA can begin to have overwhelming influence in the sector with strong collaboration with the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation and other relevant agencies in the sector.
Resolving perennial gridlock at Apapa will be a major milestone for transportation in Lagos. Pending the resolution, the Lagos Ferry Services Company and its franchisees may increase its fleet around Apapa to relieve the road sector.
6.9 MASSIVE AND TRANSPARENT INVESTMENT IN TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE
To bridge the huge transport infrastructure gap in the city, it is imperative that the government considered massive and transparent investment in infrastructure. It will be wrong to conclude that LAMATA alone can provide transport infrastructure in a city of more than 23 million people and large scale transport infrastructure deficit. Hence, it will require extensive collaboration with both local and international stakeholders especially the local administrations, private infrastructure investors through transparent and accountable Public Private Partnership, development partners and organized private sector transport operators.
6.10 EARLY INFORMATION ON INSTITUTIONAL, MANAGERIAL AND OPERATIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR LAGOS URBAN RAIL NETWORK
In the last public statement by the new Governor of Lagos State in June 2016, he affirmed that the part of Lagos Urban Rail Network, Blue Line (Okokomaiko to Marina) will commence operation in 2016. As at date, there is no clear information to members of the public on the operational framework for the system. It is incumbent on LAMATA to take urgent steps in realizing the following or making the information on them available, if the rail operation is commencing in 2016.
(i) The identity, board and managerial framework, capacity and mandate of the institution that will drive the operation of the rail system; LAMATA, Eko Rail Network or Lagos Rail (a newly proposed name in this study)
(ii) Types of train and schedule of operation (movement timetable to be printed and circulated in Lagos) and types of services that will be available
(iii) Price schedule, types of tickets, terms and conditions for buying tickets, modes of payments and locations to purchase tickets,
(iv) Safety information
(v) Consumer protection and feedback mechanism
(vi) Stations’ operation schedule
6.11 UPGRADE AND REPOSITIONING OF AUTO MECHANIC WORKSHOPS IN THE CITY-STATE
As transport remain a vital factor for driving social and economic growth of the city, the current infrastructure and equipment maintenance framework cannot support the system. With the emerging new initiatives and expansion in the sector, it is expedient to reposition the maintenance component to be able to play vibrant supportive roles in the sector.
This can be achieved by providing comprehensive training programs focusing on the bottom of the ladder maintenance personnel. Such personnel will include existing artisans from different mechanic workshops across the city, converting Danfo Drivers and Conductors, Okada and Keke Marwa Operators among other personnel. Also, there is need to upgrade the existing mechanic workshops with a view to repositioning them for emerging opportunities in the sector. Upgrading can be achieved in phases with categorization of workshops as training and upgrading can be supported through Transport Fund.
Specific details, processes and procedures are expected to be captured in the suggested Lagos State Transport Policy.
The face of transportation is changing in Lagos since the intervention of LAMATA in 2002, but significant milestones are still required to be covered in providing adequate and effective transportation for the city of Lagos. One major factor that will sustain the relevancy and operations of LAMATA is for the agency to be completely insulated from nepotism and strengthen its meritocracy principle of recruiting its personnel.
The recently signed Public Private Partnership to delivering fourth mainland bridge is a right step, but efforts must be made to ensure that the project becomes platform for wealth creation for Project Affected Persons (PAP) especially people that hold informal assets along the bridge right of way. The project should not translate to the story of miseries and woes for people living in precarious condition as witnessed under previous administration during the implementation of similar projects in the past.
Also, the attempt to introduce well fitted Medium Occupancy Buses to replace over 145,000 Low Occupancy Buses (Danfos) is a welcome development. However, this can be achieved in phases considering the huge number involved, status of many feeder roads and the impact on the commuters.
The initial non-combatant characteristic of the current administration at the beginning of term in May 2015 is a great asset which the city can build upon to begin the redefinition of how transportation and other services will be delivered to the residents of the city.
8 FURTHER READING
The research project on transportation, housing and other urban development processes was fully funded by Heinrich Boll Stiftung, Nigeria. The author works with Dr. Taofik Salau, Richard Unuigboje and Mayowa Oluwaseun of the University of Lagos. The research was coordinated by Fabienne Hoelzel while LAMATA offered technical support.
Further reading including references can be accessed through https://ng.boell.org/2016/02/12/urban-planning-processes-lagos
The report looks into Aberdeen city’s architecture and infrastructural evolution over the years. It examines the processes of renewing old infrastructure and bringing them to maximum utilization in today’s age of technologically driven cities. It reviewed the development history of Aberdeen from around 8th century AD through the years of granite, oil exploration to the present day of green energy.
The report while taking note of the successes recorded by Aberdeen in creating comfortable, livable and sustainable environment for the residents and visitors, it is envisaged to be a tool for other cities, especially in developing countries on how to formulate a template that will ensure equality and fairness in accessing urban resources and infrastructure.
The 1996 local government reform and the prevailing urban system in Aberdeen presents a compelling experience on the true structure of decentralization and effectiveness of local authority in delivering urban services and infrastructure to the residents in comparison to over centralization of governance and weak local administration in some cities of developing countries. In the 1920s and 1930s serious slum clearance took place in Aberdeen. Between 1919 and 1939, 2,955 slum houses were demolished. Some 6,555 council houses were built. The former slum dwellers were re-housed in many council houses built-in the city at that time. This is a classical example of government dignifying its citizens by moving them from vulnerable to respected conditions and a viable learning platform for cities facing the challenge of informal settlements.
Further, the report explores how Aberdeen is utilizing city branding, collaboration and partnership with local and foreign stakeholders, logical implementation of plans, engagement of residents and creating conducive business environment for the private sector to execute tactical urban development projects. It reviewed the city’s trend and strategies in transportation, water and sanitation, waste management, energy delivery and general living conditions.
For further reading, kindly visit; Lookman Oshodi on ResearchGate or