Lookman Oshodi is the Project Director, Arctic Infrastructure and member of the technical committee for 2018 Guangzhou International Award for Urban Innovation. In this interview with BERTRAM NWANNEKANMA OF THE GUARDIAN, he gives an insight on the way out of the housing problems bedeviling the country.
What do you consider as the best approach in tackling the nation’s housing deficits?The first step is for the states to key into the existing housing policy of the Federal Government and make adjustments to reflect their own priorities in housing. Capacity building across the board is very important to understanding the dynamics of housing in Nigeria. For instance, while Gombe State may not necessarily set housing as its top most agenda, Ogun State needs the understanding that by virtue of its location, it stands to produce the most viable, accessible and large scale housing market not just in Nigeria but the entire West African sub region. Many states require the involvement of local governments to play active roles in housing delivery process.
In the area of funding, a number of initiatives are coming up to make funding accessible, but currently they are disconnected from one another. There is also the need for that cohesive approach that will bring all funding initiatives together and sensitize them to housing providers in Nigeria on the ease of accessibility and the benefits.
What roles can infrastructure play in addressing the nation’s housing deficits?
The success of any housing system rests majorly on the supporting infrastructure. Housing will remain inadequate qualitatively and quantitatively, if infrastructure is absent. Over the years, the deficit quantum of housing in Nigeria has remained stagnated at between 17 to 20 million, depending on where you are getting the figure. This could be more because majority of housing available lacked critical adequate housing indicator and infrastructure. A well-developed infrastructure, comprising good transportation system, water and sanitation, energy, healthcare, education and connecting technology among others will attract tremendous investments into the housing sector. It reduces the production cost of housing, increases supply of units, improves land value around housing, creates better physical and economic accessibility for the beneficiaries, improves social and environmental quality of Nigerians and improves the nation’s prosperity index. If well conceptualized, planned, executed and delivered, infrastructure is a backbone of reducing housing deficit in Nigeria.
According to a survey, Nigeria needs about N10.63tn ($67bn) to tackle infrastructure gap. What role should private sector play in meeting the huge financial outlay?
The private sector has significant role to play in attracting funding for Nigerian infrastructure needs. In any infrastructure investment market, private sector possesses ability to navigate the complex market and rapid turnaround period. Whether on or off the investment road show, private sector has comparable advantage in attracting infrastructure funding, especially when funding partners are gradually realising that state led infrastructure in many cities in Sub Saharan Africa are not fully yielding the desired results.
In Nigeria, the private sector had made huge funding commitment to infrastructure development. Majority of housing in Nigeria are the products of private capital, the fledging energy sector currently relies on funding from the private sector while infrastructure for tax model is being introduced in the road sector. All these are considerable history of private sector financing of infrastructure and pointer of interest to make further contributions.
However, for private sector to make effective contributions, government must play substantial enabling role and create accountability platform that will draw private sector funding. At this stage, the Nigeria needs to be very clear on the type of economic model it wants to pursue, social, capitalism or clear hybrid system. A bit of social, welfare, capital and communal models without concrete loop end leading to the multiple mis-interpretation on the part of state actors, inconsistencies, policy somersaults, nepotism and obscured transparency in infrastructure procurement process are all inimical to private sector interests. They are doing substantial damage to the private sector contributions in bridging the infrastructure gap.
Do you think the present administration’s housing policy can bring about solution to homelessness in the country?
To measure the sustainable solutions on housing of any country in the world, the first indicator is the housing situation in about five flagship cities. Observations in these five cities can give valid opinion on the success or otherwise of the housing delivery structure. In Nigeria, housing situation in Lagos and Abuja will readily come to mind. Then, situation in Port Harcourt, Enugu, Kano, Kaduna and Ibadan can provide answers to the assessment of the present administration’s housing policy.
The administration is doing its best within the complex housing environment, but there are still milestones for us to cover as a nation. However, housing question in Nigeria is a resolvable dilemma if we set our priorities right and address the fundamental issues.
Which areas would you want to see improvement?
I am not sure if the merging of housing ministry with works and power ministry is translating to housing for many Nigerians. I am yet to see quality housing for people of Ajegunle or Okokomaiko in Lagos and residents of Dutse-Alhaji and Jikwoyi in Abuja. Land accessibility, as also acknowledged by the Minister, is a major obstacle that the administration needs to improve upon. A lot of reforms are being executed in the housing finance sector but they need to be cohesive from the present silos framework. Sustainable building materials require further attention while capacity improvement at all levels of manpower should be strengthened.
The new trend now in the housing industry is smart homes. How can developers embrace the new technology associated with it?
The smart home concept is growing in Nigeria among new homes coming to the market. Although, the rate of retrofitting at individual’s level is not too clear, but the trend is largely common in high and medium income communities. Homes in the low -income communities are making sporadic investments in procuring one form of smart home equipment or the other.
Smart home is fast emerging in the country but scope of adoption is still being limited because of broader environment restriction. The concept of smart home becomes seamless and rewarding if there is interoperability with city smart response system such as security, emergency, utility and supplies. How many cities are smart enough to encourage internet of things with various homes?
Smart homes functioning relies on regular energy, internet connection and equipment batteries. Energy supplies in Nigerian cities are too low while it is a considerable challenge to access internet in many cities outside Lagos, Abuja and few other cities. Take notice that basic pre-paid electricity meters that measure households’ consumption on the utility is still intractable. The infrastructure gap in the housing sector is imposing limitations on the full -scale deployment of smart homes, but the market is optimistic with investment opportunities.
The Land Use Act amendment has been stalled. Is it possible to do away with the Act without its amendment? How?
At present, we cannot do away with the Act since it is a substantive national law, which every citizen must comply with. The act has its both advantages and disadvantages but one thing that is clear is that the act has encouraged multiplication of slums and spread of informal settlements in Nigerian urban centres. Sometime, you may not need elaborate lobbying or conferences to highlight the deficiencies of certain system. The obvious outcomes of such system should be compelling for policy makers to initiate changes. Many citizens have been consciously confined to the realm of informalities because of the provisions and implementation of the Act.
In this case of Land Use Act, it is ideal for states to begin creative ways of working around the Act in making formal land accessible to their residents. Ogun State Home Charter programme is making progress in expanding access to formal land holding while some other states too are working under the framework of Presidential Technical Committee on Land Reform to expand formal accessibility. In any case, it must be noted that the revision and amendment of the Land Use Act is long overdue.
Rural to urban migration has continued to increase, do you think we need a National Urban and Regional Planning agency to give direction to the development process?
A process without a direction will find it extremely difficult to achieve any meaningful success. Setting any urban agenda without a coordinating institution means clear direction is lacking for the agenda. Hence, the necessity to have agency to coordinate development services and strengthen resiliency in Nigerian urban centres. Lack of these institutions in many states in Nigeria is evidenced in the chaotic and unplanned situations we are seeing in many urban areas.
What role will such agency play in ensuring integrated housing programme?
Such agency, if established in a state can initiate and set housing agenda for the state. The agency will set policies, and standard for housing development and where possible provides a platform for multi-stakeholder, public, private and community to come together and deliver housing system that can reflect the aspirations of each state.
There have been calls for a virile physical development management institution to ensure proper urban development. How feasible is this?
Setting up a development management agency could be challenging when a state looks at the initial cost outlay of the system. Cost in this case will include start-up cost for accommodation, equipment and other logistics. Also, the medium to long term operational costs play major roles. However, the cost outlay brings huge returns to the state because it facilitates both local and foreign investment opportunities, improves the livability index of the residents and becomes a bridge to bring many residents into formal economic structure of the state, including taxation.
In ensuring the feasibility of having the agency, the state needs to be creative in engaging partners. especially in the private sector and restructure some elements of cost recovery mechanism in the development services. For the agency to be sustainable and perform its functions effectively, the State leadership needs to shield it from undue political interference.
Lookman Oshodi interview with the Guardian newspaper on housing and infrastructure in Nigeria, April 2019. Details can be accessed through Lookman Oshodi interview with the Guardian on housing and infrastructure in Nigeria
BRIEF OUTLOOK ON THE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM AND DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT IN THE CITY OF SURABAYA, INDONESIA
Overview of the City
Surabaya, known as the city of Heroes, is the capital city of East Java province in Indonesia. The city covers an area of about 333.063km2, 80% of the city is about 3-6 meters above sea level while the remaining 20% in the southern part of the city are hills of about 30 meters above the sea level (Surabaya Government, 2018, https://www.surabaya.go.id)
As at 2012, the city of Surabaya had approximate population of 3,110,187 and currently developing as a metropolitan city. It is a strategic center of economic activities in Indonesia (Surabaya Government, 2018, https://www.surabaya.go.id). At an annual growth rate of 0.65%, the population of Surabaya in 2018 will be approximately 3,233,472 with density of 9,708 persons/km2.
Surabaya located in the northeastern corner of Java is a key node in various national and international air, water, and land transportation networks. Surabaya is less than two hours away from the Indonesian capital city, Jakarta, by plane and within a few hours of any city in Southeast Asia. It is served by Juanda International Airport and Perak Port, one of Asia’s largest and busiest seaports. These two international nodes serve as important gateways to the province of East Java not only for passengers, but also for the transport of goods. Surabaya has a large shipyard and numerous specialized naval schools. As the provincial capital, Surabaya is also home to many offices and business centers, and educational hub for Indonesian students. Surabaya’s economy is also influenced by the recent growth in foreign industries and the completion of the Suramadu Bridge in 2009. Surabaya is currently building high-rise apartments, condominiums, and hotels as a way of attracting foreigners to the city (World Bank, 2013, https://www.worldbank.org/content/dam/Worldbank/document/EAP/region/sueep/energizing-green-cities-surabaya-indonesia.pdf).
As observed, transportation system in the city may not be totally classified as advanced or “A” rated, but using indicators such as availability, comfort, safety, timing and scheduling, affordability and security, the city will rank about 60%.
In addition to the Juanda International Airport and Perak Seaport, the city internal network is dominated by land based transportation comprising rail and road systems. The road system involve private cars, car hailing service, bike riding, bus service and trucks.
At the car hailing sub sector, it appears that there are two categories of operators; first is the individual operated taxi type and second is the hailing company operated car taxi type. Although, passengers are most likely to find comfort in hailing company operated taxis but common challenge is that passengers who cannot speak Javanese or Bahasa Indonesia (Indonesian) will have some difficulties with the drivers around road description, destination mapping and payment discrepancies.
The bike hailing operation is large within the city’s landscape but appears well coordinated and adhered strictly to the basic safety procedure. The operators always wear safety helmets and respect the dictates of the traffic lights. A procedure which has remained unattainable in some cities of Sub Saharan Africa save for recent pioneering efforts of SafeMotos in Rwanda, SafeBoda in Uganda, Gokada in Nigeria and Teliman in Mali who are now operating cities coordinated bike hailing services.
Apart from the trees that lined many of the roads, streets ornamental lightings are major feature of road furniture in Surabaya, especially at night. The concept of streets ornamental lightings is common in many cities in the Asian–Pacific region, but it presents a compelling investment opportunities in Surabaya for light manufacturers because of extensive adoption in the city. The roads are constructed to good engineering standard, well maintained and cleaned.
Disaster Risk Management
Surabaya is a city with good proportion of urban green areas comprising of trees, shrubs and organized green gardens. Considerable presence of these green elements are good factors for reducing the city’s carbon footprint. Also, the city is well interspersed by water absorption zones in form of ponds, wetlands and small sized lakes, apparently serving as flood control measures and water breaker in the event of large waves. The rate of water retention zones is almost comparable with the city of Rotterdam in the Netherlands, but in different forms and composition.
One key feature of disaster risk prevention is the flash notice to the visitors in the hotel rooms warning of possible earthquake and steps to be taken in the event of any. This is commendable as it puts any uninformed visitor to the city on alert and in preparation mode.
The brief outlook on the City of Surabaya was compiled by Lookman Oshodi as a result of visit to the city of Surabaya from September 7 to 14, 2018 to participate in the Technical Committee meeting of Guangzhou International Award for Urban Innovation, 2018
GUANGZHOU INTERNATIONAL AWARD FOR URBAN INNOVATION SURABAYA, INDONESIA, SEPTEMBER, 2018: A PLATFORM FOR EXEMPLARY MODELS IN LOCAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS (SDGS) AND THE NEW URBAN AGENDA
The Guangzhou International Award for Urban Innovation since 2012 has become global reference in identifying and sharing initiatives that are responding to local challenges but also catalyzing global actions towards the implementation of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the New Urban Agenda. Riding on the successes of previous editions (2012, 2014 and 2016), the 2018 edition of Guangzhou Award assembled 11 experts from different regions of the world to assess initiatives submitted by cities in 70 countries and regions. It was a gathering that shared experience, expertise, regional challenges and creative ideas in addressing the challenges. The Technical Report from the Guangzhou Award as outlined below, provides detailed analysis of making 2018 edition of the award.
The Technical Committee (TC) of the Guangzhou International Award for Urban Innovation (Guangzhou Award) met in Surabaya, Indonesia from 8 to 12 September, 2018. Its members came from different geographical regions and represent different areas of expertise. It met to select deserving and shortlisted initiatives with a view to enhancing the implementation of sustainable urban development through inspiration and knowledge sharing. It took into consideration the goal of the Guangzhou International Award for Urban Innovation (Guangzhou Award) to recognize innovations in improving the social, economic and environmental sustainability in cities and local governments worldwide and more specifically:
• To highlight exemplary models of innovative policies and practices in the local implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the New Urban Agenda;
• To motivate cities and local authorities to further promote innovation and to learn from each other;
• To improve city governance.
The TC took also into consideration the objectives of the City of Guangzhou to promote the sharing of lessons learned from urban innovations between cities, regions, countries and thematic areas.
The TC wishes to express its appreciation to City of Guangzhou, United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG) and World Association of the Major Metropolises (METROPOLIS) for their vision in establishing the Guangzhou Award. The TC also wishes to express its appreciation to ICLEI, C40 and University of 17 Agustus 1945 Surabaya (UNTAG) for their active participation and support to the Award process.
The TC commends the Secretariat for the Guangzhou Award in the way it handled the call for submissions as well as the transparency in its guidelines and processes. It further commends the City of Guangzhou for its intention to invite all 15 shortlisted cities and local governments (hereinafter referred to as cities) to present their initiatives to the International Conference on Urban Innovation as was the case in 2012, 2014 and 2016, and to allow the Jury to make its final decision after the conference.
The 2018 Guangzhou Award received 313 initiatives submitted from 213 cities and from 70 countries and territories, among which 273 submitted from 193 cities and from 66 countries and territories were considered eligible. The TC would like to recognize all submissions for their commendable efforts in making their respective communities more sustainable. Of these 193 cities, 45 were identified as deserving cities. Of these 45 cities, the TC further shortlisted 15 cities representing outstanding initiatives from the 45. These 15 cities are presented in annex including the reasons behind the TC’s choice.
II. Evaluation Process
The TC assessed each submission using the main criteria established by the Guangzhou Award namely: • Innovativeness: the extent to which and the use of knowledge of information has been generated, configured and applied in developing new policies, practices and/or business models to address major urban issues and challenges;
• Effectiveness: the extent to which the initiative has achieved or is well on its way to achieve its stated objective(s) and effective social impact;
• Context: innovation was also considered within the social, economic and political context of each initiative;
• Replicability: the positive demonstration effect and scalability of the initiative in inspiring others to adopt new ideas, policies or practices, including replication in other locations of the city, region or country for greater impact and sustainability;
• Significance: strategic importance and cross-cutting nature of the initiative; the importance of the initiative in addressing problems of public concern.
In addition to the above and to the traditional pillars and domains of sustainability (social, economic, environmental, governance and technology), the TC considered the integrated and transformative nature of each initiative.
III. Selection Procedure for the Shortlisted Initiatives
The TC adopted a three-step assessment process. In its first step, the TC reviewed the initiatives of each geographic region by the respective regional experts. This resulted in a first list of 76 cities.
In its second step, the members of the TC re-organized into two groups (A and B) with the purpose of identifying 45 deserving cities through extensive shared discussion. Each group came up with a list. The two lists were compared in plenary. Those common to both lists were unanimously admitted to deserving initiatives list. Those remaining were discussed in plenary until consensus on the final list of 45 cities was reached.
In its third step, the members of the TC were re-organized into Groups C and D with the purpose of identifying 15 shortlisted cities. The same methodology was applied and resulted in the shortlist.
The TC prepared a brief for each shortlisted initiative to inform the Jury of the rationale of its selection. These briefs are contained in Annex III.
At its conclusion, the TC finalized the current report. It also presented the results of its deliberations to participants and leaders attending the 7th UCLG ASPAC Congress.
IV. TC Members
1. Mr. Greg Budworth, Group Managing Director, Compass Housing Services Co Ltd; Vice President, General Assembly of Partners, UN-HABITAT;
2. Mr. Luigi Cipolla, Senior Urban Planner, EGIS International in Indonesia; member, ISOCARP since the 2007 (member of the Italian ND from 2016);
3. Mr. Ali El-Faramawy, Professor, Architectural Design, Department of Architecture & Urban Planning, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University; Executive Director, Informal Settlement Development Facility (ISDF), Office of the Prime Minister, Government of Egypt (2009-2013); Senior Human Settlement Officer, Regional Office for Africa and Arab States, UN-HABITAT (2007-2008);
4. Ms. Kirstin Miller, Executive Director, Eco-City Builders;
5. Mr. Lookman Oshodi, Jury Member, Pilot Projects (2018-2020), METROPOLIS; Project Director, Arctic Infrastructure (AI);
6. Ms. Wandia Seaforth, Former Chief, Best Practices, UN-HABITAT SAFER CITIES;
7. Ms. Elisa Silva, Director, Enlace Arquitectura; Senior Advisor, CAF-Development Bank of Latin American; Consultant, UN-HABITAT; Professor, Simon Bolívar University; Visiting Professor, Harvard University;
8. Mr. Enrique R. Silva, Associate Director, Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) program, Lincoln Institute of Land Policy (LILP); Chair, Technical Committee, 2018 Guangzhou International Award for Urban Innovation;
9. Mr. Anthony G.O. Yeh, Chan To-Hann Professor in Urban Planning and Design, Chair Professor of Department of Urban Planning and Design, Director of GIS Research Centre, University of Hong Kong; Academician, Chinese Academy of Sciences; Academician, Academy of Social Sciences, UK;
10. Ms. Belinda Yuen, Research Director, Lee Kuan Yew Centre for Innovative Cities, Singapore University of Technology & Design; elected President, Singapore Institute of Planners (20052008);
11. Mr. Carlos E. Zaballa, Professor, University of Buenos Aires; Special Consultant for supporting G20 Engagement Groups, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Argentina; Member, Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF), United Nations (2011-2014).
V. Members of the Secretariat
1. Mr. Nicholas You, Director, International Programs and Partners, Guangzhou Institute for Urban Innovation
2. Ms. Yinghong Zhou, Deputy Secretary General, Guangzhou Award Secretariat
3. Ms. Shulin Tan, Manager, International Programs and Partners, Guangzhou Award Secretariat
4. Mr. Roger Lawe, Manager, Branding and Communications, Guangzhou Award Secretariat
ANNEX I: LIST OF 15 SHORTLISTED CITIES (IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER)
No. City / Local Government Initiative
1. Santa Fe, Argentina Santa Fe’s Western Urban Natural Reserve: embracing the hydroclimatics risks
2. Sydney, Australia
Green Square: From a rich industrial past to a vibrant, sustainable and connected community
3. Salvador, Brazil – Environmental Recovery Program of the Canabrava Park
– Caravana da Mata Atlântica
4. Repentigny, Canada A city of all
5. Wuhan, China
The “rebirth” of urban waste dump — ecological treatment and return of plurality – The Nirvana of a City’s Landfill: The Improvement of Biological Environment as trump card in City Go
6. Yiwu, China
Innovating foreign service initiatives to build a harmonious and integrated Yiwu
7. Santa Ana, Costa Rica “Santa Ana en Cleta”: Active mobility and empowerment of women: Workshops to learn how to ride a bicycle, urban cycling, pacification of roads and re appropriation of public space.
8. Surabaya, Indonesia Public Participatory in 3R Waste management for Better Surabaya
9. Milan, Italy Milan Food Policy: an innovative framework for making urban food system more sustainable, inclusive.
10. Guadalajara, Mexico Citizen-led Metropolitan Coordination of Guadalajara
11. Utrecht, Netherlands Localizing the SDGs through multi-stakeholder partnerships
12. Kazan, Russia Innovative social and economic development of the city of Kazan
13. eThekwini, South Africa – Incremental, participatory, programmatic informal settlement upgrading programme
– Partnerships with the private sector to achieve sustainable sanitation service provision
14. Mezitli, Turkey Mezitli Women Producers Market
15. New York , United States Global Vision | Urban Action: New York City’s Voluntary Local Review (VLR) of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) shows local progress for global action
ANNEX II: LIST OF 30 DESERVING CITIES (IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER)
No. City / Local Government Initiative
1. 1. Brussels-Capital Region, Belgium Canal Plan: an innovative planning approach for the Brussels-Capital Region
2. Dangbo, Benin Valorization of water hyacinth in Compost
3. Federal District, Brazil Acting to transform: social control and transparency
4. Vancouver, Canada Northeast False Creek Plan
5. Vaudreuil-Dorion, Canada I AM…/Citizen involvement, culture and sustainable development
6. Guangzhou, China Guangzhou 12345 Government Service Hotline
7. Nanning, China Developing Beautiful South Pastoral Complex and narrowing urban-rural gap
8. Hong Kong, China T PARK
9. Bogota, Colombia – Urban Transformations for Inclusion
– http://www.sexperto.co Digital platform for information on reproductive health and access to health service
– Coexistence and respect for difference: a social inclusion of the Lesbian, Gay, Bi-sexual, Transgender”
10. Curridabat, Costa Rica Date Tu Casa (Give Yourself a House)
11. Senftenberg, Germany The Lusatian Lakeland – Transformation with structure, from a mining region to a lake landscape
12. Isfahan, Iran Specialized Hospital of Sick Buildings (Sustainable Doctor of Sick Buildings)
13. Eilat, Israel Eilat Solar
14. Kfar Saba (Israel) Meeting a Common Challenge: Optimizing Energy Practices and Behaviors
15. Bologna, Italy Civic Imagination: Engaging Communities for a More Inclusive and Sustainable City
16. Alor Gajah, Malaysia Melaka World Solar Valley (MWSV)
17. Seberang Perai, Malaysia SEBERANG PERAI UPCYCLE PARK
18. Cuautla, Mexico La Perseverancia: Solid waste to generate electricity with a social benefit in Cuautla
19. Ramallah , Palestine weRamallah: Smart City Initiative
20. Bucheon, Korea (Republic of) Climate-Resilient City, Bucheon
21. Busan, Korea (Republic of) Gamcheon Culture Village’s City Rejuvenation Project
22. Seoul, Korea (Republic of) Seoul’s people-centric urban regeneration project as a model of sustainable urban growth
23. Krasnoyarsk, Russia Mayor’s Labor Unit
24. Ufa, Russia – Interdepartmental System of Preventing Adolescent Suicides in Ufa City
– Information and Control Center of Ufa City
– Center of Temporary Accommodation (Emergency Fund) of Ufa Сity”
25. Singapore, Singapore Master Planning of Punggol Eco-Town
26. Catalonia, Spain “smartCATALONIA, scaling the smart city concept to a regional
27. Zaragoza, Spain 100 ideas Zaragoza
28. Umeå (Swden) The gendered city tour – challenging power in cities
29. Eskisehir (Turkey) Eskisehir Urban Development Project
30. Denver (United States) – Solving Climate Change and Creating Green Spaces in Denver, Colorado, USA: Green Building Policy
– Solving Climate Change and Creating Green Spaces in Denver, Colorado, USA: Energize Denver”
ANNEX III: SUMMARIES OF THE 15 SHORTLISTED CITIES’ INITIATIVES
1. Santa Fe, Argentina Santa Fe’s Western Urban Natural Reserve: Embracing the Hydroclimatics Risks
The Argentine city of Santa Fe, population 400,000, developed an innovative approach to planning and risk management as a response to a devastating flood in 2015. A community-led program to massive flooding evolved into the Western Urban Natural Reserve project. Its objective is to transform 142 hectares of reservoirs into a protected natural area that is also incorporated into a system of green public spaces. It directly benefits more than 80,000 residents. It promotes environmental education and awareness and the improvement of quality of life. Also, it promotes economic and social development through labor training activities, the incorporation of informal waste collectors, the creation of community orchards and the construction of nurseries. The initiative is innovative because it integrates education, poverty reduction, social inclusion with water, land and natural resources management. The environmental dimension is foregrounded as the key driver for risk management processes and the socio-economic improvement of the community. The TC recommends this project for consideration to the Guangzhou Award because of its comprehensive approach considering green space, watershed management, and the role of ecological systems in lieu of hard infrastructure in the formation of an urban space and the mitigation of risk. The TC also commends the city for its citizen engagement in the design and advancement of the initiative.
2. Sydney, Australia, Green Square:
From a Rich Industrial Past to a Vibrant, Sustainable and Connected Community
Sydney is Australia’s largest city with a population of 5 million people, while the municipality of the City of Sydney has a resident population of 233,217 over an area of approximately 30 square kilometers.
Green Square will be Australia’s largest urban renewal project to date, to be supported by participating public and non-public stakeholders and aims to be the most livable, resilient, lively, walkable, accessible, sustainable and unique area of the city for the benefit of its estimated 61,000 residents. It will host a socially and economically thriving town-centre, markets, festivals and world-class sporting and community facilities. It is supported by sustainable mobility infrastructure; a transit-oriented, high density development aiming to minimize its environmental footprint. Public policy and government funding for the project is committed and the private finance, legal, technical and logistical infrastructure strategy is well advanced, as is the monitoring and evaluation methodology to assess the project’s performance against a range of social, economic, urban and environmental indicators that aim to show that high density living can be compatible with high health and well-being outcomes for residents. Utilizing value-capture and public-private partnership approach, its economic sustainability is well supported and will transform the unused, flood-prone, swamp and other disused land while remaining proximate to a broader economic area and aims to produce 21,000 employment opportunities and Australia’s largest storm water harvesting and treatment scheme.
The Technical Committee were impressed by the holistic approach to innovation, scale and transferability to the project and notes that the successful implementation of the project will deliver outcomes consistent with the SDG 3: Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all ages; SDG 4: Ensure inclusive and equitable education and promote life-long learning opportunities for all; SDG 6: Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all; and SDG 11: Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable.
3. Salvador, Brazil
– Environmental Recovery Program of the Canabrava Park
– Caravana da Mata Atlântica
The Brazilian city of Salvador, population 3 million, presents two linked projects that address environmental protection, remediation, reforestation, and education. It is advanced by the SECIS Sustainable City and Innovation Secretary to address the vulnerable situation of one of the most sensitive biodiversity locations in the world currently threatened by growing urbanization. In order to reverse this scenario, the “Caravana da Mata Atlântica” (a mobile classroom) was created with the purpose of encouraging greater awareness of the importance of preserving green spaces and environmental preservation. It is a holistic and comprehensive environmental protection project that engages youth and targets traditionally marginalized and at-risk communities most affected by deforestation. A specialized team of the SECIS develops and implements projects such as tree planting activities, together with the community. Other components of the project are the use of sludge as fertilizer in the reforestation process, and the conversion of a landfill into a public park.
The TC recognizes value in the initiative because of its engagement with different partners including universities, and elementary schools. It shows a capacity to be collaborative and flexible in order to advance the project´s higher goals. It demonstrates the ability to readdress harmful urban development through a comprehensive campaign of reforestation and the promotion of public space.
This initiative is highly relative to SDGs 11 and 15
4. Repentigny, Canada
A City for All
Repentigny is an off-island suburb of Montreal, Quebec, Canada. With a population of approximately 84,000, it is the home of many cultural festivities.
“A city for all” is a refreshing and exciting three-initiative proposal wrapped under one banner.
• The Citizens and Families initiative connects citizens and municipal staff with information quickly and effectively, a key characteristic of a smart city.
• The Youth initiative focuses on a multimedia lab housed in the city’s library, providing access to digital technologies focusing on creativity and expression. More than 18,000 teenagers using the facility since its opening.
• The Vulnerable People initiative provides assistance to citizens by telephone or the web linking to a wide range of social and community resources. To date, the data have shown that 30% of requests for assistance were in relation with basic needs: food, shelter and material assistance, and 67% of the vulnerable persons were women.
Importantly, these initiatives are generating insights and data that will be used for future planning and development policies and goals.
The TC applauds the City of Repentigny, Canada for its broad vision and demonstrated actions to develop an inclusive city at a human scale and to enable innovation and creativity.
This proposal most strongly correlates with Goal 11: Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe resilient and sustainable, Goal 4: Ensure inclusive and equitable education and promote life-long learning opportunities for all and Goal 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls and Goal 3: Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all ages.
5. Wuhan, China
The “Rebirth” of Urban Waste Dump – Ecological Treatment and Return of Plurality
Wuhan has a population of 10,890,000, a land area of 8,569 sq. km., and a population density of 78,787/sq. km. This innovation transforms one of the largest landfills in Asia, Jinkou Landfill in Wuhan, to be the most charming recreational park and ecological garden.
The restoration of Jinkou Landfill and the polluted Zhanggong Dyke solved the ecological and urban problem that have troubled Wuhan for decades. It created a 50.5 km long ecological belt, covering an area of over 170 sq. km. It reduces pollution and links up the once polluted Zhanggong Dyke to provide an urban forest park for pedestrians and bicyclists. Part of the site was used for the China International Garden Expo in 2015-2016. This project has made the 14 adjacent communities and the lives of 400,000 people more livable, closing inequalities in the city. The project involves government departments as well as experts from 82 cities in China and 12 countries. This is the largest application of aerobiotic technology for landfill remediation and the biggest ecological bridge in China. It also uses an innovative way of crowd sourcing in raising funds in addition to the traditional way of funding the project. It reduces inequalities and promotes social cohesion of nearby citizens by drastically improving their living environment. People has been mobilized to participate in the project. The Technical Committee was impressed by the scale and impacts of the project and the innovative ways of implementing it. Other cities can learn from this project on how to turn and link polluted landfills and waterways into parks and pedestrian walkways and bicycle lanes, turning “gray belt” into “green belt” for improving the quality of life the city.
It has achieved the SDG 6 – Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all; SDG 9 – Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation; SDG 10 – Reduce inequality within and among countries; and SDG 11 – Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable.
6. Yiwu, China
Innovating Foreign Service Initiatives to Build a Harmonious and Integrated Yiwu
The City of Yiwu (population: 2.2 million; population density: 2024 people per square km) in China is a major wholesale consumer goods and e-commerce centre in the country and the world. It is ranked as the world’s largest wholesale market of consumer goods, exporting to over 200 countries. Every year, about 500,000 business people from overseas visit Yiwu while over 13,000 of them reside in Yiwu. Against the growing number of international people in the city, Yiwu has since 2016 implemented a suite of inclusive and innovative strategies to promote inclusion and sense of belonging including among overseas business people.
The strategies cover a wide range, from business to culture including the development of a 1st in China mediation of foreign-related business disputes by foreigners for foreigners, a 1-stop service for all international trade examination and approval transactions, an international family programme to strengthen communication and community building between local and foreign residents, and the issue of a foreign merchant card to help foreigners access public services that are provided to local Chinese, among others. The vision is to create a good business and living environment for both local and foreign residents, in particular, to promote mutual understanding and a better sense of integration. Yiwu has taken the bold measure of improving the living environment for foreigners as the yardstick to measure its improvement in living environment for all residents.
The Technical Committee commends Yiwu on its forward-looking and all-inclusive approach towards integrating its diverse international community. In addressing the needs and living environment of the growing international population, Yiwu is highlighting what might be done towards achieving SDGs 10 and 16 while promoting economic prosperity in a rapidly globalizing society.
7. Santa Ana, Costa Rica
“Santa Ana en Cleta”: Active Mobility and Empowerment of Women: Workshops to Learn How to Ride a Bicycle, Urban Cycling, Pacification of Roads and Re Appropriation of Public Space.
The San Jose, Costa Rica, suburb of Santa Ana, population 57,000, has been shortlisted for its program, Santa Ana en Cleta, a project dedicated to the empowerment of Santa Ana’s local population by teaching women how to ride a bike and how to use it as a means of transport. The initiative is considered a step towards the development of the “Active and Sustainable Mobility” program for the city of Santa Ana. The mobility program combines three specific areas: the empowerment of women, sustainable mobility and the strengthening of communities. The overall objective is to transform the mobility and road culture of the city of Santa Ana. The first stage of the project is focused on ways to encourage women, in particular within vulnerable communities, to use the bicycle as a means for personal and economic development. The project also seeks to improve the quality of the urban environment, citizen well-being, health indicators, the recovery of public spaces, as well as and the right to use the city.
The TC recommends the project for the Guangzhou Award for its focus on the promotion of alternative modes of transportation for women and the emancipatory potential of increased bicycle use. The program has a commendable educational program that not only links mobility to personal development, but also demonstrates ways that women can turn the bicycle into an accessible and dignified mode of daily transportation. Half of the world could benefit from this approach to women´s mobility and inclusion.
This initiative is highly relative to SDGs 5 and 11
8. Surabaya, Indonesia
Public Participatory in 3R Waste Management for Better Surabaya
Surabaya is Indonesia’s second largest city and the capital of East Java Province with a population of 3.3 million and a population density close to 10,000 people per square kilometer.
Against a background of increasing waste and the degradation of social, human health and environmental outcomes, the innovations contained within the participatory 3R Waste management impressed the Technical Committee.
Firstly, the breadth and depth of community engagement striving towards the program becoming a social movement was esteemed.
Secondly, the strong commitment to adopting international best-practice and technology in creating an economically sustainable waste management, monitoring and reporting system was also observed.
Finally, the Committee were also impressed by areas of uncommon innovation, for example: the ability of residents to pay for their transit needs in empty plastic bottles, was lauded. It is hoped that the ongoing change process will eventually disincentivize the use of plastic bottles as the program-movement develops in the future but recognized 3R’s contribution to the Sustainable Development Goals 3, 6, 7 and 11.
9. Milan, Italy
Milan Food Policy: an Innovative Framework for Making Urban Food System more Sustainable and Inclusive.
Located in northern Italy, Milan is the second most populous city in the country after Rome with a population of approximately 1,300,000 and population density of 7,533 people per square kilometre. The city’s primary sources of prosperity include trade, tourism, and the creative industry.
Milan’s submission, “Milan Food Policy,” is an innovative planning strategy integrating and implementing a “Food Cycle System” throughout the city. Also importantly, the initiative is strongly linking to social goals of improving health and well-being of citizens. To date, the policy has generated more than 40 initiatives have been developed related to reuse, recycling waste food and reducing food miles.
The policy initiative additionally cooperates with other international organizations, including EUROCITIES Working Group on Food, the EU Platform for Food Losses and Food Waste and the C40 Food System Network.
A key-innovation in the “Milan Food Policy” initiative is a new model of urban governance which is based on an integrated cross-sectoral approach between public agencies, social organizations, and the private sector.
The Technical Committee recognizes the issue presented as innovative for the Italian and European context. They appreciate the efforts in scaling the project through a holistic and integrated approach while stimulating local awareness, building public-private partnerships, and aligning municipal policies to SDG indicators.
The project facilitates the exchange of knowledge through community, local organization and international partners. The project emphasizes SDG Goal 2: End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture and Goal 11: Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable.
Citizen-Led Metropolitan Coordination of Guadalajara
The Mexican State of Jalisco and the 9 municipalities comprising the metropolitan area of Guadalajara, population 4,5 million, decided to take a metropolitan approach to planning in lieu of the traditional scheme of fragmented planning and governance by individual municipalities. This planning reform was formalized into an institute called IMEPLAN (Metropolitan Institute of Planning), the first one of its kind for Mexico, and a rare example across Latin America. The central idea of IMEPLAN is to engage its citizens, experts and municipalities into participatory planning process at the metropolitan scale through collaborative roundtables, workshops and an educational curriculum. The activities encourage all stakeholders to imagine, innovate and plan at a metropolitan scale. It is focused on reducing the negative impacts of unplanned urban development. Part of the initiative merits was that it overcame traditional political forces that undermine metropolitan governance. The collaborative approach to envisioning IMEPLAN resulted in the participation of 9 municipalities and the passage of legislation that established the metropolitan body.
The TC recommends the project for the Guangzhou Award as a rare example of a community-lead creation of a metropolitan authority charged with the planning and coordination of the city region. Even though the initiative is relatively new, it has gained traction in a short period of time with a strong focus on controlling sprawl. This initiative is highly relative to SDGs 11 and 12
11. Utrecht, Netherlands
Localizing the SDGs through Multi-Stakeholder Partnerships
The City of Utrecht, Netherlands, with a population of approximately 345,000, is the capital and most populous city in the province, and the fourth largest city in the Netherlands. Its ancient city centre features buildings and structures dating back to the High Middle Ages.
Utrecht is using the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) as a framework for local development to become a “Global Goals City”. The city is activating and cooperating with local stakeholders and connecting local initiatives and expertise with international developments.
In essence, Utrecht is localizing SDG indicators to measure and track its own public and private development performance. An integrated, interdisciplinary and multi-stakeholder approach will ensure that healthy citizens live in a healthy environment and work in a healthy economy. The effort is hinged on raising local awareness, stimulating SDG-based local strategies, facilitating the exchange of knowledge, building public-private partnerships, and aligning municipal policies to SDG indicators.
The Technical Committee applauds the Urecht’s effort and an all-encompassing framework for sustained action and the health of citizens, a prosperous future and effective urban management.
Utrecht’s initiative most strongly aligns with Goal 3: Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all ages and Goal 11: Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable
12. Kazan, Russia
Innovative Social and Economic Development of the City of Kazan
The city of Kazan has a population of approximately 1,200,000 and is the sixth most populous city in Russia.
Kazan is addressing critical challenges of social and economic development through three progressive, innovative and pro-active initiatives.
The “Embracing Diversity” initiative celebrates Kazan’s multi-cultural and multi-ethnic cultural heritage. As a central hub connecting these diverse communities, “The House of Friendship of Nations” not only provides offices, libraries, conferences and concert facilities, but has also developed an internet portal bringing together the multitude of diverse associations throughout the city and region. The initiative ensures co-existence and tolerance to achieve peace and harmony, civil identity of minorities, and effective integration of migrants.
The “Environmental Development” initiative ensures universal access to safe, inclusive and accessible green parks and gardens.
The “Healthy City” initiative provides pathways to healthy food for children and builds healthy lifestyles by increasing citizen’s exposure to sports culture, builds sports facilities, and modernizes healthcare facilities.
The Technical Committee recognizes and commends these evolutionary initiatives which underpin social and economic development by harmonizing diverse populations, providing a sustainable environment and building a strong citizen base.
The initiative corresponds to SDG Goal 3: Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all ages: Goal 4: Ensure inclusive and equitable education and promote life-long learning opportunities for all; Goal 11: Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable and Goal 16: Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions for all.
13. eThekwini (Durban), South Africa
Incremental, Participatory, Programmatic Informal Settlement Upgrading Programme and Partnerships with the Private Sector to Achieve Sustainable Sanitation Service Provision
eThekwini is a South African city of about 3,900,000 people with growth rate of 1.4% and population density of 1,523 people per square kilometer over an area of 2,556 square kilometer. It has comparative strength in industry, trade, tourism, creative industry, finance, manufacturing and transportation.
More than 220, 000 households in eThekwini live in informal settlements characterized by overcrowding; disasters including fires and floods; poor access to basic services including water, sanitation, electricity and emergency access. In response to these challenges, eThekwini Municipality, is implementing two ambitious initiatives, informal settlement upgrading and partnerships with the private sector to achieving sanitation solutions.
The upgrading programme is a solution incorporating social and economic opportunities that transform settlements into truly livable and sustainable neighbourhoods. With focus on urban infrastructure upgrading and job creation opportunities, the initiative will benefit 70,000 households within 6 years. The in-situ settlements upgrading initiative conforms proportionally to the Sustainable Development Goal 11 (Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable) as it will enable residents to access social amenities like education and health services and contributes to social cohesion, spatial justice and urban integration.
The partnership `program with private sector to achieving sanitation solution is a vibrant approach that is exploring often neglected critical parts of sanitation value chain in Africa, disposal, recycle and reuse. It focuses on improving the health indicators of the residents through safe sanitation practice, reduce annual budget of the municipal on sanitation, increase private sector’s participation and earnings, and increase the capacity of the relevant government’s institution on the concept of sanitation marketing. The design and implementation approach is a concrete fulfillment of Goal 6 of the Sustainable Development Goals.
14. Mezitli, Turkey
Mezitli Women Producers Market
Mezitli Metropolitan Municipality is a fast growing city in Mersin region of Turkey. It has a population of 187,536 and a 2.87% annual growth. Since 2014, Mezitli has been implementing a women’s empowerment initiative that is anchored in a women’s only market. The municipality has experienced rapid population growth due to internal migration as well as an influx of people from neigbouring Syria. This led to the need for economic projects as well as an inclusive approach to mitigate poverty as well as potential conflict. In this context, improving women’s access to economic opportunities was identified as a priority.
Traditionally, women in the region have tended to be economically dependent on male relatives and husbands. This leads to lack of confidence and inability to make many life choices independently. Options for productive activities are often limited by lack of capital as well as an administrative environment that discourages women.
The Women’s only market is free (no fees) which makes entry easy for women. A wide range of products is sold, including farm produce from neighbouring rural areas as well as traditional handicrafts. Having a women’s only market brings into one space women from different ethnic, educational and socio-economic backgrounds. This promotes exchange and mutual support that build women’s confidence. The market is also used to organize women, educate them on production and marketing practice as well as inform them of their rights and encourage them to participate in public life.
Since the initial model market started in 2014, seven more markets have been opened and the intention is to eventually have a women’s only market in each of the 40 sub-districts of Mezitli. The municipality is also working on forming a women producers’ cooperative that will be in charge of organizing the market.
This initiative is selected for its multi-pronged approach to gender equality and social inclusion. By providing a dedicated space for women to take part in economic activities outside the home, the initiative has raised women’s, and families’ economic status, empowered women to participate in public life and enhanced social cohesion.
This initiative responds to SDG Goals 5 (Gender Equality) and 8 (support positive economic and environmental links between urban, peri-urban and rural areas.
15. New York, United States
Global Vision I Urban Action: New York City’s Voluntary Local Review (VLR) of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) shows Local Progress for Global Action
New York City is the most populous and most densely populated city in the United States with an estimated population of 8.6 million distributed over a land area of about 784 square kilometers. A global power city, NYC exerts significant impact upon commerce, research, education, and politics. It is the headquarters of the United Nations, making it an important center for international diplomacy.
Taking bold, cross-cutting action at the local and global level, NYC, through Global Vision l Urban Action, is now the first city in the world to report directly to the United Nations on local progress in achieving the SDGs.
The Sustainable Development Goals are the common international roadmap for the transition to sustainable development. Multi-stakeholder mobilization is key to the success of the SDGs and cities are at the frontline of implementation.
Although some cities do report on local implementation of the SDGs as part of a national framework, the United States has thus far not submitted a Voluntary Local Review (VLR).
The VLR was artfully adapted from OneNYC, the city’s sustainable development strategy. By tapping into existing NYC efforts, the VLR is avoiding what could have been seen as an unnecessary on local agencies.
The TC has awarded high marks to this proposal for providing an important, cross-cutting and innovative mechanism and a tool to engage with other cities and stakeholders to demonstrate the critical role that cities play in achieving the SDGs.
This proposal most strongly correlates with Goal 11: Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe resilient and sustainable and Goal 17: Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the Global Partnership for Sustainable Development
Further information on Guangzhou International Award for Urban Innovation, kindly visit, GUANGHZOU AWARD
Munich is a German city with metropolitan population of about 2,800,000 with annual growth rate of 0.99%. It has total area of 5, 504 square kilometers and population density of 509 persons /km2.
The city, best described as low-rise in its urban contents, has diverse land transportation modes ranging from bicycles, cars, city buses, trams to trains. Its housing system has good characteristics which other cities can learn from, among which are;
1. Development in the City of Munich is not locked down in state’s land administration and management bureaucracy rather the city administration is responsible for land matters.
2. Land is managed in the overall interest of the city and not in individuals’ interest, building collective city prosperity. Priority is accorded those who want to use land for development of social and cooperative housing.
3. The management and administration of the city rest with the City of Munich Government and not the State of Bavaria Government
4. The state adopted hybrid housing delivery model, cooperatives and social housing in responding to the housing needs of the low-income households in the city. The two models are being managed under the same operational framework.
5. The finance market for housing development is accessible and attractive. At less than 2% interest rate, the market is a huge encouragement to the developers.
6. There is a standing government funding support, of up to 40%, for developers who want to invest in the social and cooperative housing sector.
7. Beneficiaries of government funding will hold the social housing units for not less than 40 years before selling.
8. There is standing grant for developers who participate in developing properties under the City’s portfolio into social housing.
9. There is vibrant culture and history of successful housing cooperative societies in the city
10. Houses are built by large scale developers rather than individual low-income earners which often overwhelmed the planning system.
11. The quality of houses is exceptional irrespective of the income status of the beneficiaries.
12. There is differential rental system operational in the market with Renters in the social housing sector enjoying lower rent compared to private rental market
13. Different housing delivery models adopted by the city have resulted in strong inclusionary and integrated neighborhoods where high and low-income earners live together. This has eliminated low-income and high-income neighborhoods dichotomy and inequality as can be observed in many cities of developing countries
14. The city is recording high outputs of housing annually which is about 4,000 units due to liberal and non-restrictive housing delivery models adopted by the city.
15. The regulations that surcharges house that remain vacant for more than three months is a market balance and stabilization strategy that is worth exploring by other cities in emerging economies.
16. Urban regeneration transcends physical renewal of building and environment, but economic and social prosperity of the city through various supports for small and medium enterprises.
17. The city continues to innovate through smart city concept which focuses on non-motorized transportation, community integration and inclusiveness.
The city has comparable strength in the preservation of historical buildings and compact airport facility. The expansion of rail infrastructure as one of the responses to the city’s transportation congestion is commendable.
Platform for the City’s Assessment
The Arctic Infrastructure (AI) and Heinrich Boll Stiftung Nigeria (hbs) led a team of Nigerian development stakeholders to the City of Munich, Germany on a working visit to expand knowledge on affordable, social and cooperative housing approaches in April, 2017. The team met the officials of City of Munich, leadership of social and cooperative housing organizations and other influential stakeholders in the city development, in addition to viewing different construction projects and completed houses.
The team members were Mrs. Monika Umunna – Heinrich Boll Stiftung Nigeria (hbs); Lookman Oshodi – Arctic Infrastructure (AI); Arch (Mrs.) Adeyemi Oginni – Department of Architecture, University of Lagos; Mr. Debo Adejana – Realty Point Limited; Mr. Raymond Gold – Nigerian Informal Settlements Federation; Mrs. Victoria Ohaeri – Spaces for Change; and Ms. Abimbola Junaid – Arise Women.
Mrs. Beate Adolf of Heinrich Boll Stiftung Berlin (hbs) and Ms Sophia Pritscher of the Department of Architecture, Technischen Universitat Munich (Technical University of Munich) coordinated the Munich’s end of the working visit.
1. Stuttgart’s Brief Introduction
Stuttgart is a German city with population of about 623,738 (population.city, 2018) representing 0.76% of the Germany’s population, 82, 293, 457 (World Population Review, 2018). It is among the ten largest cities in Germany ranked number six on population size after Berlin, Hamburg, Munich, Cologne and Frankfurt am Main (World Population Review, 2018). The city is the capital of Baden-Württemberg and most populous within the State among the three other administrative divisions of Karlsruhe, Turbingen and Freiburg. Other adjoining metropolitan areas to Stuttgart are Esslingen, Goppingen, Boblingen, Ludwigsburg and Rems-Murr-Kreis among others. With 207 square kilometer, the population density is 3,013 people/km2 which is about 60 times above world average of 50.79 people/ km2 (StatisticTimes.com, 2017).
2. City’s Architecture
The city’s morphology shows that Stuttgart is a city of many parts divided and connected by river, multi-line rail network, arterial roads, basins and parks. The Table 1.1 below further shows different parts of the city and buffer elements.
Table 1.1: City Districts and Buffer Elements
3. Stuttgart Climate Resilience Development Model
A careful and detailed observations of the city shows that many of these buffer elements are critical flood resilience strategies for the city. For a city nestled among Württemberg hill, Stuttgart Cauldron valley and Neckar valley, the risk of water flow pattern leading to catastrophic flood or deluge could be very high. However, the interspersed of settlements around basins, parks and resilience transportation infrastructure appears to have kept flood risk disaster to the barest minimum.
Obviously, the city’s interspersed physical development architecture ensures that an emergence of climate related disaster in any part of the city is isolated and resolved within the affected locality without necessarily leading to the lock down of the entire city.
4. City’s Assets
The city hosts some of the renowned automobile and engineering organizations in the world including Daimler AG, Mercedes Benz, Porsche and Bosch. The agriculture mainstay is vineyard spread across different parts of the city, especially in the hilly neighborhoods. It also hosts one of the German’s reputable brewery, Dinkelacker.
Stuttgart is home to many historical and monumental buildings among which are Mercedes Bez Museum, Posrche Museum, Stuttgart City Library and the prestigious Le Corbusier Houses. On July 17, 2016, Le Corbusier Houses in Stuttgart built in 1927 and popularly known as The Weißenhofsiedlung (“Weissenhof Estate”), were among the seventeen Le Corbusier’s projects inducted into the list of UNESCO World Heritage sites as part of “Outstanding Contribution to the Modern Movement” in seven countries.
5. Observations and Conclusions
Although, the driving culture among the motorists requires significant ethical compliance, but the city’s mixed transportation modes of city buses, cars, rail system and air are well integrated and connected. The hilly terrain of the city is not a good encouragement for cycling.
In addition to the trappings of successful metropolitan area in Europe, one major strength of Stuttgart is the successful utilization of its valley shaped terrain to produce a unique, ordered and aesthetically appealing city. The functionality of city’s infrastructure was not hampered by the physical constrains. The city exemplified best practice in adapting and mitigating flood risk disaster especially when cities are in the race to fulfilling the Paris Agreement on Climate Change.
Stuttgart may take a lead in convening discussions among the cities that have similar physical and landform characteristics to share best practices in physical development, housing, transportation, energy, and water and sanitation infrastructure delivery. The city built up characteristics could be a good knowledge platform for other cities with similar terrain especially in the Southern hemisphere. Freetown, Serra Leone, Abuja, Nigeria, Port-au-Prince, Haiti and Kathmandu, Nepal are some of the cities around hills that can share knowledge with Stuttgart when reforming the physical fabric of their cities.
Platform for the Article
Stuttgart, a Model of Climate Resilience Metropolis was prepared by Lookman Oshodi, the Project Director of Arctic Infrastructure (AI) during the visit to Stuttgart, Germany to assess projects on urbanization and infrastructure in Africa by the Masters Students of Architecture in the Department of Architecture, Stuttgart State Academy of Art and Design in April 2017. The department is led by Professor Fabienne Hoelzel
StatisticTimes.com, 2017, List of countries by population, updated 16 April 2017, http://www.statisticstimes.com, accessed on June 30, 2018
Wikipedia, Stuttgart,https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stuttgart, accessed on June 30, 2018
World Population Review 2018, Germany population, 2018 worldpopulationreview.com/countries/germany-population/, accessed on June 30, 2018
Tripsavvy, 2017, Stuttgart’s Le Corbusier Houses, The Latest UNESCO World Heritage Site in Germany, https://www.tripsavvy.com/stuttgarts-le-corbusier-houses-4109279, accessed on June 30, 2018
1. Kaduna State Social and Economic Development
Kaduna Sate was incorporated in 1976 out of which Katsina State was carved out in 1987. It covers an estimated area of 46,056 square kilometers which is about 5% of Nigeria’s total land area, 923,768 square kilometers. The state, in the North West geo-political region of Nigeria, shares borders with Zamfara, Katsina, Niger, Kano, Bauchi, Nasarawa, Plateau States and the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. It is located globally between latitudes 9˚ 03¹ and 11˚ 32¹ North of the Equator and longitudes 6˚ 05¹ and 80 38¹ East of the Greenwich Meridian (Kaduna State Government, 2013).
Major Rivers in Kaduna State include the Kaduna, Kogum, Gurara, Matsirga and Galma River. Kaduna State experiences a tropical continental climate with two distinct seasonal climates, dry and rainy seasons. The wet season (May to October) is very much heavier in the Southern part of the State in places like Kafanchan and Kagoro, which have an average of over 1,524 mm, than in the Northern part like Makarfi and Ikara, which have an average of 1,016mm. The average annual rainfall and humidity are 1,272.5 mm and 56.64%; respectively while the average daily minimum and maximum temperatures are 15.1 and 35.18 degrees Celsius (Kaduna State Government, 2013).
The population of the state according to 2006 census stands at 6,113,503. Using 3.18% growth rate allowed by the National Population Commission, the projected population of Kaduna State stands at 7,474,369 (2013 projection), therefore, by the year 2018 the state population would be 8,446,417 (Kaduna State Government, 2013). At the estimated population of 8,446,417 and land area of 46,056 square kilometers, the population density is 183 people per square kilometer which is lower than the national density of 197 people per square kilometer. The state’s population structure shows that majority of the citizenry currently live in urban and semi urban towns like Kaduna, Zaria, Kafanchan, Kagoro, Zonkwa, Birnin Gwari, Makarfi and Zangon Kataf. Twenty two percent (22%) of the population are infants, aged between 0-5 years while 18% are children aged 6-11 years. The average life expectancy in the state is estimated at only 44 years (Kaduna State Government, 2013).
Relatively, high number of people living in the urban and semi-urban centres are exerting significant pressures on the urban resources and infrastructure. The population of women, infants and children also suggests a high level of dependents and vulnerable groups in the state. Beyond the urban focus, there is a concentration of population on a central strip running from the north (Kudan, Sabon Gari, Zaria) all the way down to the south-east of the state (Sanga and Kaura) which is the main line of rail and road transportation. The western part of the state is the least populated.
The state currently has 23 Local Government Areas which were restructured into 46 Development Areas in 2004 to facilitate development. The senatorial zones of the Local Government Areas is depicted in Table 1.1
Table 1.1: Local Government Areas in Kaduna and their Senatorial Zones
|S/N||Senatorial Zone||Local Government Areas||No.|
|1||North||Ikara, Kubau, Kudan, Lere, Makarfi, Zaria, Sabon Gari, Soba||8|
|2||Central||Birnin Gwari, Chikun, Giwa, Igabi, Kajuru, Kaduna North, Kaduna South||7|
|3||South||Jaba, Jema’a, Kachia, Kagarko, Kaura, Kauru, Sanga, Zangon Kataf||8|
2. Overview of Kaduna Metropolitan Area
Kaduna metropolitan area is the state capital of Kaduna State in north-western Nigeria with significant natural landmark such as Kaduna River. The metropolis comprises four local government areas majorly Kaduna North and Kaduna South and considerable parts of Igabi and Chikun Local Governments. It is a trade centre and a major transportation hub for the surrounding agricultural areas with its rail and road junction. The population of Kaduna was 760,084 as of the 2006 Nigerian census. Rapid urbanization over the past decade has created an increasingly large population, now estimated to be around 1.3 million.
Kaduna is an industrial centre of Northern Nigeria, manufacturing products like textiles, machinery, steel, aluminum, petroleum products and bearings. However, the textile industry has been declining because of factories closing due to restrictive economic and operating conditions. Automobile manufacturing and pottery are also important part of Kaduna’s economy. Other light manufactures include plastics, pharmaceuticals, leather goods, and furniture. Kaduna refinery, one of Nigeria’s four main oil refineries is located in the city.
Majority of the settlement pattern in the city is grid and linear in characteristics showing high level of English colonial system inputs into the early stage of physical development planning. However, this has not prevented usual physical inequalities obvious in cities of Sub-Saharan Africa as the city is segregated along income basis. Despite its location in the Savannah region of Nigeria, Kaduna still has considerable component of green areas with trees and shrubs in metropolitan areas. This with climate change resilience implications.
3. Observations on Urban Development and Infrastructure in Kaduna City
First level observation of Kaduna city at the entry points offers typical scenery of a Sub Saharan African city characterized by basic transportation infrastructure, unequal distribution of adequate housing, street and pavement trading and overhead cabling reticulation system. Also, the city’s scenery and aesthetic appeal are not at par with the history and popularity of Kaduna within the geo-political space of Nigeria.
a. City Architecture
Significant portion of Kaduna city is dominated by military uses some of which are Headquarters 1 Division Nigerian Army, Nigerian Defence Academy and the Defence Industries Corporation of Nigeria (DICON) among others. With the huge military bases, Kaduna can be described as the ‘Security and Intelligence Hub of Nigeria”. This is a major strength that Kaduna is yet to be fully explored to drive social, economic and technology prosperity of the city. It is not in doubt that the presence of military facilities in the city would have created direct and indirect job opportunities for residents, but unable to transform the city into “Military Wealth Hub”. The city is yet to neither become the convergence point for military rank and file in Africa nor produce globally acclaimed service or product that can enhance the resolution of climate change induced crisis between herdsmen and farmers. It is yet to join the league of Artificial Intelligence cities or convinced the nation on the compelling need to adopt holistic space technology in enhancing food security, reducing the flood and desertification related disaster, and mitigating security threats. The large presence of military installations in the city ought to make Abuja – Kaduna Expressway the safest and most secured highway in Nigeria. Kaduna has significant and comparative advantage over many African cities to turn security land uses into opportunities for its residents.
Housing in Kaduna metropolitan areas depicts the usual segregation characteristics of many African cities along the line of low-income and high income earners. At the high income end in Government Reservation Areas (GRAs) are the walled and gated houses while at the low-income end of the city in Sabon Tasha, Tundun Wada and other communities are opened unplanned informal settlements. Kaduna will do well to reposition its housing sector towards ensuring economic prosperity for all categories of residents, promotion of Northern Nigeria cultural values and absorbing commuting population from Abuja, the Federal Capital City of Nigeria, since the central city development orientation in Abuja is not flexible to accommodate the mix of different income groups and does not totally envisaged influx of social and economic migrants.
Transportation is largely land based consisting of road and rail systems. The road which is the dominant transportation mode has a network of arterial, collector and access roads. There is visible improvement and reconstruction of many roads especially in the arterial and collector categories while new drainage infrastructure are being delivered around many access roads in certain communities in metropolitan Kaduna.
The flagship rail system for the city is Abuja – Kaduna rail system with station at Rigasa. The 186.5 km standard gauge railway has been moving average daily passenger of 1,280 between Kaduna and Abuja (All Africa, 2018). There is also 750 passengers capacity Kaduna Airport located near Isira community, about 12 kilometers from metropolitan Kaduna (Federal Airports Authority of Nigeria, 2016).
d. Water and Sanitation
The services in the water and sanitation sector in Kaduna city cannot be totally isolated from the overall scenario in Kaduna State since there is no disaggregated information for the city. Water and sanitation system are currently not vibrant in meeting the needs of the residents as many rural/urban communities lack access to clean, potable water and regular sanitation. Estimated water demand for the state is put at 751 million liters per day (mld) while the current service access is 315 mld (Kaduna State Government, 2016).
There are five existing Dams built and owned by the State Government mainly for water supply and limited irrigation, one for Kaduna Town and the rest for four other towns: Zaria, Birnin Gwari, Ikara and Saminaka. The state has twelve (12) water works for the treatment and supply of potable water through distribution network estimated at 2,553.80 km for all the water works to nine (9) urban centers in the state. The current installed capacity of the water works is 380 mld of water while the requirement for the urban centers is 540.25mld. The actual production from the 12 water works is 214.8 mld out of the 380mld installed capacity as at 31 December, 2015. This low production is as a result of erratic power supply and dilapidated equipment (Kaduna State Government, 2016).
The sanitation situation in Kaduna is not better. Access to sanitation as it relates to safe disposal of fecal waste is still low. About 7.8% of the estimated population was reported to be practicing Open Defecation in 2011 (Kaduna State Government, 2016). According to National Demographic Health Survey (NDHS) 2013, 51% of the population and 22.1% of households in Kaduna state have access to an improved, not shared sanitation facility. This is markedly higher than UNICEF (2015) estimates which state that Benue, Bauchi and Kaduna have relatively higher proportion (30-40%) of improved latrine coverage compared to other states.
Limited access to water is one of the key factors identified for lack of adequate sanitation as observed in the residential communities and public facilities such as hospitals, schools and market places. However, the Kaduna State Government’s Sector Implementation Plan and the current intervention efforts of United States Agency for International Development (USAID) through Development Innovations Group (DIG), United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), African Development Bank (AfDB) and Islamic Development Bank (ISDB) and may alter the challenging situation significantly in the long term.
4. Recommended Steps to Transforming Kaduna City
The name Kaduna is far ahead and beyond the development on ground. Hence, the need for the relevant authorities to rethink and restructure the strategies of governance architecture, mechanism of urban development, approaches of delivering urban infrastructure and services, and engagement with military institutions.
A careful observation of Kaduna city gives it three inherent and basic comparative advantages among other cities in Nigeria, the geographical centralized position in the northern Nigeria, high proximity to the Federal Capital City of Nigeria, Abuja and large concentration of military institutions within its boundary. Also, of good strength is the implied brand of Kaduna as the political headquarters of the northern Nigeria. These are platforms for Kaduna to transforming its development indicators, strengthen its ability to meet the needs of the residents and create significant influence in both regional (Africa) and global development. Some of the options below may be considered;
a. Establishment of Kaduna Military Innovation Agency (KADMIA)
The proposed Kaduna Military Innovation Agency (KADMIA), a Kaduna State Agency, comprising both military and civilian strategists will work to exploring how the large presence of military institutions in Kaduna will turn to huge social and economic benefits for the residents of the city while at the same time placing Kaduna among the first ranking military innovation cities in the world. Parts of the agency mandates will be to identify and facilitate the execution of policies, programs and projects that will be of global relevance with direct positive impacts on the livelihoods of Kaduna’s residents and attracting local and foreign visitor’s expenditure to the city of Kaduna through friendly military activities.
b. Prioritization of Transportation Sector
Due to its geographical central location in the northern part of Nigeria and high proximity to the Federal Capital City of Nigeria, Abuja, transportation will be a major sector that will define the future of Kaduna city. Transportation in this context means road, rail, air and petroleum pipe network. The impending urbanization that will trail the July 2016 inaugurated Abuja-Kaduna 186.5 km standard gauge railway and the emerging 3,421 kilometers national networks including Kano-Kaduna-Ibadan-Lagos network (Vanguard, 2017) should put the entire Kaduna transport system at alert for secondary and tertiary distribution system within the city and in the entire Northern region of Nigeria. To enhance the preparedness for this role, it is ideal to have a standalone Ministry of Transportation from the current Ministry of Works, Housing and Transport.
In addition to focus on road and rail transportation systems, the new Ministry of Transportation should have strong interface with the federal agencies responsible for Kaduna Airport and petroleum pipe network within the city.
c. Transit Oriented Development
Since Kaduna will play major roles in regional transportation system and in the mobility of people from the city to Abuja on regular basis, principles of Transit Oriented Development (TOD) should be adopted as part of city’s overall physical development strategies. Large scale housing delivery should be a key integral part of the TOD, if adopted. However, caution must be taken to avoid the pitfalls of discriminatory housing delivery framework which segregates residents based on their income. An inclusionary housing strategy can be adopted to escape the poverty and insecurity traps created by age long discriminatory housing system in many cities of Sub Saharan Africa.
Kaduna has for long perceived as the modern capital and political city of the northern Nigeria, however the realities on ground is yet to fully capture this image. To make a transformation into a sustainable global influential city, Kaduna needs to harness its strength through the suggested measures to be backed with long term vision and development plans. Kaduna has a strong potential, but until that potential is translated into tangible opportunities for both internal and external stakeholders, Kaduna is an untapped gold of the northern Nigeria.
Platform for Study
The platform to have insight into the development in Kaduna was provided during the assessment of governance and institutional framework for urban sanitation in Bauchi and Kaduna (March – June, 2017). A WASH Coordination Project (WCP) of Development Innovations Group (DIG) and United States Agency for International Development (USAID). The project has Associate Professor Taibat Lawanson of the University of Lagos and other key personnel as team members.
All Africa, 2018, Nigeria: Buhari Commissions 2 Trains, 10 Coaches, 5 January. Available at http://allafrica.com/stories/201801050072.html, accessed on January 31, 2018
Kaduna State Government 2013, Kaduna State development plan 2014-2018, Ministry of Economic Planning, September 2013
Kaduna State Government 2016, Kaduna State water and sanitation sector implementation plan 2017 – 2019
Kaduna State Government 2015, Kaduna State Development Plan 2016-2020, Ministry of Economic Planning September 2015
UNICEF, 2015, UNICEF annual report for United Kingdom’s Department For International Development grant SC140236, “sanitation, hygiene and water in Nigeria project (SHAWN II)”, March 2014 to February 2015
Vanguard 2017, FG plans 10 new rail lines nationwide as new coaches arrive, October 2. Available at https://www.vanguardngr.com/2017/10/fg-plans-10-new-rail-lines-nationwide-new-coaches-arrive/, accessed on January 31, 2018
Pictures of Infrastructure and Development in Kaduna
Over the years, cities in developing countries, especially in Sub Saharan African have been dealing with the challenges of pedestrians crossing the roads instead of making use of pedestrian overhead bridges or underpasses, where available.
In many major transport hubs within the city of Lagos, pedestrians cross the road freely with little or no regard for safety considerations. Some of the factors responsible for crossing the roads instead of utilizing the pedestrian bridges, where available and as mentioned by pedestrians, include deteriorated conditions of the bridges, lack of security to lives and properties on the bridge, the unfriendly nature of the bridges (number of steps) and congestion.
In designing and implementation of road infrastructure in the city, priority is sometime misguided and biased on income disparity. For example, in the design of improved Lekki – Epe Expressway, a pedestrian overhead bridge was closely constructed to Victoria Garden City (VGC), a high income neighbourhood where car ownership and access to other modes of private transportation is high. On the other hand, residents of Ikota, a low-income community with little access to private cars on the same route, have made several representations to both the road concessionaire/contractor and the government on the need to provide pedestrian bridge on Ikota section of the expressway. Such representations are yet to yield result despite evidences of road related fatalities presented by the residents.
Previously, government responses to pedestrians crossing in Lagos are erection of road barriers (mesh wire fence, prominently) on the road medians and arrest of pedestrians that crossed the roads. Although, these two approaches are still prevalent, but other models such as construction of new pedestrian bridges with roof cover, lighting system and ramp for physically challenged individuals, and provision of security personnel on the bridges have been introduced which have reduced the rate of road crossing in some hotspots, especially Ojota. Despite these measures, many pedestrians still find it preferable to cross the roads which means the government need to look beyond current strategies.
Resolving this age long urban challenge, many cities have implemented innovative and sustainable models where pedestrians cross the road through overhead bridges that afford excellent shopping opportunities. In this case, bridges are built into the mall or malls are used as the bridge serving as attraction to the pedestrian from the entry to exit point. In many cases, such pedestrian bridges always take their roots from the transport stations. Ojota and Onipanu in Lagos are good places where this innovation can be implemented. Construction of user friendly bridges through the use of escalators are another best practice some cities are adopting to attract pedestrians. This should be a good option for Lagos, provided there is sustainable energy base to support the infrastructure. Some cities, however, implement hybrid or multiple best practices of the foregoing approaches to deter pedestrian road crossing.
Underpass is also widely used in cities to promoting pedestrian safety against road crossing. Apart from Independence underpass at Maryland and locked tunnel on Awolowo Road, Ikoyi, Lagos city is not popular with underpass and tunneling infrastructure system. Based on its population and high development density, the option is worth exploring but with consideration to local physical and technical factors.
The pictures and videos below show pedestrians’ crossing infrastructure in Lagos, Nigeria, Coventry, United Kingdom and Stuttgart in Germany.
Pictures contributions in Lagos by Ayotunde Akomolafe and Abiola Falaye.